Jane Austen and ...

Thursday, March 22, 2012

Jane Austen and the Black Hole. Notes

NOTES

Preamble

1. Austen (1818b), Northanger Abbey, Chapter 14, p108.

2. Santayana (1953), p397.

3. Aarons & Loftus (1997), The Secret War Against the Jews, p12.

4. Rachel Carson (1964), Silent Spring, p257.

5. Koestler (1974), The Heel of Achilles, p11.

6. Rabindranath Tagore quoted in Henry Miller (1992), Moloch or, this Gentile World., p257.

2008 Preface

7. Ray (1973).

8. Polya (2003b) in Elias & Elias (2003), pp 201-202.

9. Grun (1975).

10. Polya (1995).

11. Chamarette, C. (1995).

12. Austen (1818b), Northanger Abbey, Chapter 24, pp210-202.

13. Polya (1998a).

14. Polya (1999d).

15. see Polya (1995) to Polya (2008).

16. Polya (1999b).

17. Polya (2003a).

18. Reason (2000).

19. Polya (2008a, b, c).

20. Polya (2008d, e, f, g, h); Spratt, D. and Sutton, P. (2008a, b).

21. Hansen (2008); Whitesides (2007).

22. Hansen et al. (2008)

23. Lovelock (2006); Goodell (2007); see also Lovelock (1979, 1988, 1991, 2007).

24. Polya (2008a, b, c).

25. Smith & Elliott (2008) re Professor John Beddington.

26. Fargione et al. (2008); see also Searchinger (2008).

27. Polya (1998a).

28. Polya (2007a).

29. Singer (2000).

30. Kuhse & Singer (1985).

31. Polya. (2007b).

32. UNICEF (2008); UN (2008); Polya (2006c,d).

33. WHO (2008).

34. Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1950).

35. News.com (2008).

36. Scholars for 9/11 Truth (2008); Gore (2007).

37. Polya (2007c).

38. Polya (2008k,l).

39. UN Genocide Convention (1950).

40. Polya (2005l, m); Polya (2008i,j).

Chapter 1. Introduction - truth, reason, science and history

1. Austen (1791), The History of England, p71.

2. George Santayana (1953): “Progress, far from consisting in change, depends upon retentiveness. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” Quoted by Daintish et al., (1991), p176; Davidoff (1955), p267; Mc Cormick (1987), p173, in his biography of George Santayana in a section dealing with the latters’s discourse on history in Santayana (1953), The Life of Reason; "He who forgets His history is condemned to relive it”, attributed to Santayana by Young (1966), p422. Of course there are numerous versions of this, of which the following are from McKenzie (1980), p237: “Seems like every time history repeats itself the price doubles; why is it nobody listens when history repeats itself? ; history repeats itself - and that’s one of the things wrong with history; a lot of history isn’t fit to repeat itself; the reason history repeats itself is that people weren’t listening the first time; we sincerely hope that history will repeat itself at longer intervals.” Other variations include: “History does not repeat itself. Historians repeat each other” , attributed to Arthur Balfour by Daintish et al. (1991), p175; “Alas! Hegel was right when he said that we learn from history that we never learn anything from history”, G.B. Shaw in the preface to Heartbreak House, quoted by Evans (1968), p316.

3. Chatterjee (1944); Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982); Hunter (1871); Kachhawaha (1992).

4. Enbree (1962); Ghosh (1944); Hunter (1871; Khan (1969).

5. Bansil (1958); Bhatia (1991); Chatterjee (1944); Chopra (1988); Das (1949); Greenough (1982); Uppal (1984); Ghosh (1944); Dreze & Sen (1989); Sen (1981).

6. Bernard (1993); Eastwood (1991);. Edgerton (1991); Kennedy (1993); Leggett (1990); Rosenzweig & Parry (1996).

7. Barrio (1990); Bennett & George (1987); Bernard (1993); Chaliand & Rageau (1985); Kennedy (1993); Kidron & Segal (1987); McKibben (1990).

8. Austen (1817), Sanditon, Chapter 11, p206.

9. Ali (1979); Gravelle (1983).

10. Robertson & Tamanisau (1988); Sutherland (1992).

11. Gedye (1994), reporting that “Denying that that Nazi Holocaust occurred became a criminal offence in Germany yesterday, punishable by up to 5 years in jail”, The Telegraph-Mirror (Sydney), 23 September 1994, p33.

12. Jog (1944).

13. The Manchester Guardian (1944).

14. Brust (1929); Polya (1986); Taylor & Taylor (1993).

15. Smith (1776).

16. Edwards & Bouchier (1991), pp435-436; Edwards et al. (1995), pp430-431; Friel (1985), pp 927, 1026; Leonardo (1950); Polya (1941); American College of Surgeons & Physicians (1941); Polya (1986); Taylor & Taylor (1993).

17. Alexanderson (1987); Boas (1974a,b); Polya (1945), How to Solve It; Taylor & Taylor (1993)

18. Polya (1986, 1996); Taylor & Taylor (1993).

19. Davis (1985); Eddy (1961); Martin et al.(1986); Polya (1955); Polya (1962a,b); Polya (1964); Polya (1965); Polya (1986); Polya & Solomon (1996); Pybus (1995); Smith (1992, 1993); Solomon (1994).

20. Bone (1957); see also Ignotus (1964); Koestler (1968); Levi (1979); Laffin (1968); Solzhenitsyn (1963, 1968, 1974); Timmerman (1982); Tyler (1977).

21. Aarons & Loftus (1997); Blumberg (1975); Gilbert (1969, 1982); Laqueur (1982); Parkes (1964); Wasserstein (1988); Weissberg (1958).

22. Churchill (1952); Churchill (1965).

23. Ceram (1955).

24. Shakespeare (1623), The Tragedy of King Richard the Third.

25. Drewett & Redhead (1984); Tey (1951).

26. Hicks (1992).

27. Einbinder (1972); Little (1913); Macfarlane (1975).

28. Honan (1987); Lane (1986, 1996).

29. Honan (1987); Weldon (1984).

30. Honan (1987); Hodge (1972); Johnson (1984).

31. Reynolds (1966); Wilson (1979).

32. Rothenstein (1966); Wilton (19750; Wilson (1979); Lloyd (1996).

33. Trevelyan (1952).

34. Levi (1979).

35. Greenough (1982).

36. Austen (1818b), Northanger Abbey, Chapter 24, pp210-202.

37. Magee (1975); Popper (1976).

38. Kuhn (1965).

39. Koestler (1964).

40. Soros (1987); Soros (1990); Soros (1991); Soros et al. (1995); Slater (1996).

41. Sharpe (1971).

42. Calvin (1969); Lehninger (1975), Chapter 37.

43. Cohen (1996); Denton (1985).

44. Trevelyan (1952).

45. Rosenzweig & Parry (1994).

46. Kennedy (1993); United Nations Population Division (1992).

47. Birch (1980); Bochuan (1991); Ehrlich (1968); Ehrlich et al. (1973); Falk & Brownlow (1989); Falloux & Talbot (1993); Goldsmith et al. (1990); Gordon & Suzuki (1990); Lovelock (1979, 1988, 1991); McKibben (1990); Porritt (1991); Saunders et al. (1993); Suzuki (1990); Washington (1991).

48. Santayana in Lucifer, A Theological Tragedy, p31; quoted in Cardiff (1964), p1.

49. Cartoons of George Booth reproduced in Heller (1981), pp26-33.

2008 Postscript

50. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (2007).

51. Wikipedia (2008) re US National Academy of Sciences and other national Academies of Science re climate change threats.

52. Royal Society (UK) (2007).

53. Wikipedia (2008) re US National Academy of Sciences and other national Academies of Science re climate change threats.

54. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007); Polya, G. (2007d).

55. Whitesides (2007); Hansen (2008).

56. Goodell (2007); Lovelock (2006); see also Lovelock (1979, 1988, 1991, 2007).

57. Polya (2008a, b, c); Smith, L. and Elliott, F. (2008) re Professor John Beddington.

58. Polya, G. (2005-2008); Polya (2008d,e,h); Spratt, D. and Sutton, P. (2008).

Chapter 2. The editing of Jane Austen’s maternal connections - the Leighs and Brydges

1. Austen (1813) Pride and Prejudice, Volume 1, Chapter 1, p1.

2. Austen (1818a) Persuasion, Chapter 16, p162.

3. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Castle Square, Southampton (20 November 1808), reproduced in: Chapman (1964), p231; Le Faye (1995), p153.

4. Austen-Leigh (1870); Austen-Leigh & Austen-Leigh (1913); Austen-Leigh (1920); Bailey (1931); Bradbrook (1966); Bush (1975); Cecil (1978); Chapman (1949); Fergus (1978); Grey (1986); Halperin (1984); Hodge (1972); Honan (1987); Howard (1995); Johnson (1926); Johnson (1927); Lane (1984); Lane (1986); Lane (1996); Lascelles (1939); Llewellyn (1977); McDonagh (1991); Lauber (1993); Nicolson (1991); Rees (1976); Sherry (1966); Smith (1890); Smithers (1981); Tucker (1983); Watkins (1990); Weldon (1984); Wilks (1978).

5. Honan (1987).

6. Austen-Leigh (1870).

7. Austen-Leigh (1920).

8. Austen-Leigh (1870); Austen-Leigh & Austen-Leigh (1913); Austen-Leigh (1920); Bush (1975); Cecil (1978); Chapman (1949); Fergus (1978); Halperin (1984); Hodge (1972); Honan (1987); Howard (1995); Jenkins (1973); Johnson (1926); Johnson (1927); Lane (1984); Lane (1986); Lane (1996); Lascelles (1939); Llewellyn (1977); McDonagh (1991); Nicolson (1991); Pinion (1975); Rees (1976); Sherry (1966); Smith (1890); Thomson (1929); Tucker (1983); Watkins (1990); Weldon (1984); Wilks (1978).

9. Hodge (1972); Halperin (1984); Honan (1987); Lane (1984, 1986, 1996); Smithers (1981); Tucker (1983).

10. Austen-Leigh (1870); Austen-Leigh & Austen-Leigh (1913); Austen-Leigh (1920); Bush (1975); Cecil (1978); Chapman (1949); Fergus (1978); Howard (1995); Johnson (1926); Johnson (1927); Lascelles (1939); Llewellyn (1977); McDonagh (1991); Nicolson (1991); Rees (1976); Sherry (1966); Smith (1890); Watkins (1990); Weldon (1984); Wilks (1978).

11. Beckett (1984); Churchill (1947); Halperin (1984); Holmes (); Honan (1987); Johnson (1984).

12. Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1977), Macropaedia, vol. 5, pp31-32; Hudson (1992); Shepher (1983); Twitchell (1987).

13. Bell (1993); Brain (1979); Edwards (1987).

14. Bernstein (1991); Dukas & Hoffmann (1979); Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1977), Macropaedia, vol. 6, pp510-514; Forsee (1963).

15. Hudson (1992); The Old Testament, Leviticus, Chapters 18 & 20; for a detailed analysis of consanguinity in Jane Austen’s novels see Hudson (1992), Sibling Love and Incest in Jane Austen’s Fiction.

16. Beckett (1984); Churchill (1947); Holmes (1984); Johnson (1984);

17. Carter & Mears (1962); Plumb (1963); Trevelyan (1952); Wells (1951).

18. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Steventon (25 November 1798); reproduced in Chapman (1964), p32; Le Faye (1995), p20.

19. Bradbrook (1966); Cecil (1978).

20. Beckett (1984); Halperin (1984); Honan (1987); Johnson (1984).

21. Austen-Leigh (1870).

22. Embree (1962); Feiling (1966); Gardner (1971); Malleson (1894); Reid (1947); Wilbur (1945).

23. Feiling (1966).

24. Jane Austen letter to Charles Austen from Chawton (6 April 1817); reproduced in: Chapman (1964), p491; Le Faye (1995), p338.

25. Austen-Leigh (1870).

26. Embree (1962); Feiling (1966); Gardner (1971); Malleson (1894); Reid (1947); Wilbur (1945).

27. Feiling (1966).

28. Jane Austen letters to Cassandra from the Paragon, Bath (12-13 May & 1801); reproduced in: Chapman (1964), pp 126-129; Le Faye (1995), pp84-86.

29. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from the Paragon, Bath (26-27 May, 1801); reproduced in : Chapman (1964), pp134-138; Le Faye (1995), pp89-92.

30. Spear (1971).

31. Embree (1962); Gopal (1963); Grieve (1974); Grant (18xx); Hastings (1772) [and other eye-witnesses of the event and its aftermath quoted by Hunter (1871)]; Khan (1969); Roberts (1953, 1958); Robinson (1984)); Sinha (1967); Smith (1776); Spear (1979); Teignmouth (1843).

2008 Postscript

32. Nokes (1997); Polya (1998a); Fullerton & Harbers (2001).

33. Fullerton, S. (2002).

34. Spence (2008).

Chapter 3. The editing of the Austens and the consequences of rustic amusement

1. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Steventon (1-2 December 1798); reproduced in: Chapman (1964), pp33-37; Johnson (1926), p51-56; Le Faye (1995), pp23-25.

2. Austen (1791) The History of England in Austen (1791), p71.

3. Austen (1811) Sense and Sensibility, Chapter 42, pp295-296

4. Austen-Leigh (1870); Austen-Leigh & Austen-Leigh (1913); Austen-Leigh (1920); Bush (1975); Cecil (1978); Chapman (1949); Fergus (1978); Halperin (1984); Hodge (1972); Honan (1987); Howard (1995); Jenkins (1973); Johnson (1926); Johnson (1927); Lane (1984); Lane (1986); Lascelles (1939); Llewellyn (1977); McDonagh (1991); Nicolson (1991); Pinion (1975); Rees (1976); Sherry (1966); Smith (1890); Thomson (1929); Tucker (1983); Watkins (1990); Weldon (1984); Wilks (1978).

5. Halperin (1984); Hodge (1972); Honan (1987); Lane (1984).

6. Williamson (1975), The Department, p23.

7. Davies (1935); Feiling (1966); Gleig (1841); Lawson (1905); Lyall (1907); Moon (1947); Malleson (1894); Trotter (1890); Stephen & Lee (1964); Turnbull (1975)..

8. Feiling (1966); Malleson (1894); Spear (1971), especially pp100-104.

9. Letter of Philadelphia Hancock to Warren Hastings (3 March 1780) quoted in Lane (1994), p71.

10. Letter from Lord Robert Clive to Lady Clive (1765) quoted in Bence-Jones (1974); Lane (1984), p44; Honan (1987), p423.

11. Austen (1792), Catherine or The Bower ; also see Halperin (1982) reproduced in: Chapman (1965), pp195-240; Grey (1989) (editor), pp23-44.

12. Letter of Jane Austen to Cassandra Austen from Henrietta Street, London (15-16 September 1813) in Chapman (1964), p318-325; Le Faye (1995), pp217-222.

13. Honan (1987); Lane (1984, 1986; 1996); Tucker (1983); [ Hodge (1972) (p23) suspects something funny. In relation to the 10,000 pound bequest she says “It does make one wonder, just a little, about the relationship between them, but Hastings was known for his generosity.” Ruoff (1992) speculates about Hastings’ paternity of Eliza.]

14. Flannery (1994); Lines (1991).

15. Flannery (1994); Lines (1991); Morris, J. (1972) The Final Solution, Down Under reproduced in Chalk & Jonassohn (1990), pp204-222; Reynolds (1990); see also Strahan (1984) for details of the marsupials.

16. Flannery (1994); Strahan (1984), pp81-83.

17. Clark (1969, 1971, 1986); Clarke (1885), For the Term of his Natural Life; Conrad (1988); Hughes (1987); Koch (1987); Lines (1991).

18. Collings & Durrant (1977); Norris (1990).

19. Angus (1975): a collection of the superb wilderness photographs of Olegas Trehanas; Australian Parliament Inquiry into the Proposal to Drain and Restore Lake Pedder (1995) & the extraordinarily moving Lake Pedder slide collection set to music of Frederic Delius and performed at the University of Melbourne, 1995 as part of an as yet unsuccessful campaign to restore this vandalized treasure; Aulich (1992); Bennett (1991); Brown (1986); Burt (1980); Collings & Durrant (1977); Conrad (1988); Davies (1965); Dombrovskis et al. (1996); Gilpin (1980); Koch (1986); Lines (1991); Pullan (1986); Rankin (1989); Tassell & Wood (1981); of particular note are the paintings by Elspeth Vaughan of the South West Wilderness of Tasmania.

20. This law against homosexuals was an extraordinary blemish on Tasmania and indeed Australia.

21. Prebble (1963).

22. Flannery (1994); Lines (1991); Morris, J. (1972) The Final Solution, Down Under reproduced in Chalk & Jonassohn (1990), pp204-222; Robinson & York (1977).

23. Broomhall (1991); Cooke (1993); Fenner & Ratcliffe (1965); Matthams (1921); Williams et al. (1995).

24. Fenner & Ratcliffe (1965).

25. Tyndale-Biscoe (1993); Cooke (1993); Williams et al. (1995); Goss (1995).

26. Cooke (1993); Lenghaus (1993); Williams et al. (1995).

27.Anderson (1995a,b); Goss (1995).

28. Dickson (1996).

29. Abbott (1996).

30. Bernard (1993); Brown (1995); Carson (1962); Eastwood (1993); Edgerton (1991); Kennedy (1993); Leakey & Lewin (1996); Leggett (1990); Mitchell (1991); Myers (1990); Rosenzweig & Parry (1994).

31. Mann (1924), The Magic Mountain (Der Zauberberg).

32. Bullfinch’s Mythology (1984 edition); Larousse Encyclopaedia of Mythology (1959).

33. Anderson (1995c), Australia the brave?; Anderson (1995d), Australia’s green dissenters gagged; Martin et al. (1986); Masood (1996b), Climate report “subject to scientific cleansing”.

34. Austen-Leigh (1870); Austen-Leigh & Austen-Leigh (1913); Austen-Leigh (1920); Bush (1975); Cecil (1978); Chapman (1949); Fergus (1978); Halperin (1984); Hodge (1972); Honan (1987); Howard (1995); Jenkins (1973); Johnson (1926); Johnson (1927); Lane (1984); Lane (1986); Lane (1996); Lascelles (1939); Llewellyn (1977); McDonagh (1991); Nicolson (1991); Pinion (1975); Rees (1976); Sherry (1966); Smith (1890); Thomson (1929); Tucker (1983); Watkins (1990); Weldon (1984); Wilks (1978).

35. Hodge (1972); Ruoff (1992).

2008 Postscript

36. Nokes (1997); Polya (1998a); Fullerton & Harbers (2001).

37. Flanagan (2001).

Chapter 4. Jane Austen’s siblings and their descendants

1. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Godmersham (17-18 November 1798); reproduced in: Chapman (1964), pp27-30; Le Faye (1995), pp19-21.

2. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Queen’s Square, London (2 June 1799); reproduced in: Chapman (1964), pp62-65; Johnson (1926), p57-60; Le Faye (1995), pp41-43.

3. Austen (1818b) Northanger Abbey, Chapter 14, p110.

4. Halperin (1984); Hodge (1972); Honan (1987); Lane (1984, 1986, 1996).

5. Austen, C (18xx), My Aunt Jane Austen, a Memoir; Austen-Leigh, J. (1983) The Austen-Leighs and Jane Austen or “I have always maintained the value of Aunts” in Todd (1983), pp11-28; Austen-Leigh, J.E. (1870), A Memoir of Jane Austen; Austen-Leigh, M.A. (1920), Personal Aspects of Jane Austen; Austen-Leigh, W. and Austen-Leigh, R.A. (1913), Jane Austen Her Life and Letters. A Family Record. Hubback, J.H. and Hubback, E.C. (1906), Jane Austen’s Sailor Brothers; Hugesson, H.M. (1960) Kentish Family; Knatchbull-Hugesson, E.H. (1884) (editor), Letters of Jane Austen.

6. Austen-Leigh (1870); Austen-Leigh & Austen-Leigh (1913); Austen-Leigh (1920); Bush (1975); Cecil (1978); Chapman (1949); Fergus (1978); Halperin (1984); Hodge (1972); Honan (1987); Howard (1995); Jenkins (1973); Johnson (1926); Johnson (1927); Lane (1984); Lane (1986); Lane (1996); Lascelles (1939); Llewellyn (1977); McDonagh (1991); Nicolson (1991); Pinion (1975); Rees (1976); Sherry (1966); Smith (1890); Thomson (1929); Tucker (1983); Watkins (1990); Weldon (1984); Wilks (1978).

7. Jenkins (1973).

8. Honan (1987).

9. Lodge (1986), Changing Places.

2008 Postscript

10. Nokes (1997); Polya (1998a); Fullerton & Harbers (2001).

Chapter 5. The editing of Jane Austen’s life and connections

1. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Steventon (20-21 November 1800); reproduced in : Chapman (1964), pp90-95; Johnson (1926), pp60-66; Le Faye (1995), pp60-63.

2. Austen (1813) Pride and Prejudice, Volume 3, Chapter 15, p323.

3. Halperin (1984); Hodge (1972); Honan (1987); Lane (1984, 1986, 1996).

4. Howard (1995); Lane (1984, 1986, 1996).

5. For the Juvenilia see Austen (1790, 1791, 1792).

6. For a picture of Eliza see Lane (1996), p59.

7. Austen (1792, 1811; 1814; 1818b).

8. Mary Russell Mitford letter to Sir William Elford (April 1815), reproduced in Wilks (1978), p35; for a rebuttal of the “butterfly” assertion see Austen-Leigh (1870), p305.

9. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Steventon (9-10 January 1796); reproduced in Chapman (1964), pp1-4; Le Faye (1995), pp1-3.

10. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Steventon (14-15 January 1796); reproduced in Chapman (1964), pp4-6; Le Faye (1995), pp3-4.

11. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Steventon (17-18 November 1798); reproduced in Chapman (1964), pp27-30; Le Faye (1995), pp19-21.

12. Austen (1794, 1811, 1813, 1818b).

13. Jane Austen letters to Cassandra from the Paragon, Bath (12-13 May & 1801), reproduced in: Chapman (1964), pp 126-129; Le Faye (1995), pp84-86.; Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from the Paragon, Bath (26-27 May, 1801), reproduced in : Chapman (1964), pp134-138; Le Faye (1995), pp89-92.

14. Austen (1811, 1813).

15. Austen (1795, 1804, 1818b); Austen & Another (1977).

16. Austen (1804, 1816); Austen & Another (1977).

17. Jane Austen letter to Francis Austen from Bath (22 January 1805); reproduced in Chapman (1964), pp145-147.

18. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Godmersham re George Moore (20-22 June 1808); reproduced in Chapman (1964), pp192-198; Le Faye (1995), pp128-132.

19. Austen (1811, 1816).

20. Honan (1987), p270; for portraits of Jane Austen: see Lane (1996), pp20-21; Austen (1818a).

21. Austen (1813, 1814, 1816, 1818a,b).

22. Austen (1816).

23. Mary Russell Mitford letter to Sir William Elford (April 1815), reproduced in Wilks (1978), p35.

24. A delightful letter from Jane Austen to her favourite “neice” Fanny Knight from Chawton (20 February 1817); reproduced in : Chapman (1964), pp478-482; Le Faye (1995), pp328-331.

25. Jane Austen letter to Charles Austen from Chawton (6 April 1817); reproduced in: Chapman (1964), p491; Le Faye (1995), p338.

26. Jane Austen letter to her nephew James Edward Austen (27 May 1817) re doctors; reproduced in Chapman (1964), pp496-497; Le Faye (1995), p342.

27. Jane Austen’s last words recorded in a letter from Cassandra Austen at Winchester to her niece Fanny Knight (20 July 1817); reproduced in: Chapman (1964), pp513-516; Le Faye (1995), pp343-346.

28. Austen-Leigh (1876); Honan (1987).

29. Mary Russell Mitford letter to Sir William Elford (April 1815), reproduced in Wilks (1978), p35; see also Austen-Leigh (1870), p305.

30. Austen-Leigh (1870); Austen-Leigh & Austen-Leigh (1913); Austen-Leigh (1920); Bush (1975); Cecil (1978); Chapman (1949); Fergus (1978); Halperin (1984); Hodge (1972); Honan (1987); Howard (1995); Jenkins (1973); Johnson (1926); Johnson (1927); Lane (1984); Lane (1986); Lane (1996); Lascelles (1939); Llewellyn (1977); McDonagh (1991); Nicolson (1991); Pinion (1975); Rees (1976); Sherry (1966); Smith (1890); Thomson (1929); Tucker (1983); Watkins (1990); Weldon (1984); Wilks (1978).

2008 Postscript

31. Nokes (1997); Polya (1998a); Fullerton & Harbers (2001).

Chapter 6. The rare intrusions of social reality into Jane Austen’s novels

1. Austen (1794) Lady Susan, Lettter 21, p74.

2. Austen (1804) The Watsons, p110.

3. Austen (1814) Mansfield Park, Chapter 1, p41.

4. Austen (1814) Mansfield Park, Chapter 22, p226.

5. Jane Austen letter to Fanny Knight from Chawton (13 March 1817); reproduced in : Chapman (1964), p482-486; Johnson (1926), pp158-162; Le Faye (1995), pp331-334.

6. Carter & Mears (1962); Howard (1995); Lane (1986, 1996); Trevelyan (1952).

7. Carter & Mears (1962); Honan (1987); Trevelyan (1952).

8. Weldon (1984); Polya (1941); Cartwright (1977).

9. Honan (1987); Lane (1996).

10. Clark (1969, 1971, 1986); Clarke (1885), For the Term of His Natural Life; Hughes (1987); Shaw (1971).

11. Clarke (1885); Pullan (1984); Hughes (1987);

12. Honan (1987); Hughes (1987); Lane (1996).

13. Cameron & Spies (1992); Gopal (1963a,b); Prebble (1963); Porter (1984).

14. Chalk & Jonassohn (1990); Freund (1984); Lane (1996).

15. Gopal (1963a,b); Hunter (1871); Khan (1969); Cunningham (1996); Edwards & Williams (1957); Litton (1994); Woodham-Smith (1962).

16. Chalk & Jonassohn (1990); Lines (1991); Flannery (1994); Reynolds (1990); Robinson & York (1977).

17. Edwardes (1967); Embree (1962); Feiling (1966); Gardner (1971); Gopal (1963); Hunter (1871); Kaye (1853); Khan (1969); Lyall (1916); Majumdar (1976); Malleson (1894); Marshall (1993); Misra (1959); Reid (1947); Roberts (1958); Sinha (1967); Smith (1776); Spear (1965, 1971); Wilbur (1945).

18. Austen (1794), Lady Susan.

19. Austen (1818b), Northanger Abbey.

20. Austen (1818b), Northanger Abbey, Chapter 24, pp201-202.

21. Austen ( 1804), The Watsons.

22. Austen (1804), The Watsons, p110.

23. Austen (1811), Sense and Sensibility.

24. Austen (1811), Sense and Sensibility, Chapter 10, p49.

25. Anonymous (1842); Gardner (1971); Feiling (1966); Khan (1969); Malleson (1894); re the Chawton Middletons see Honan (1987).

26. Gardner (1971); Wilbur (1945).

27. Johnson (1984).

28. Spear (1971).

29. Anonymous (1842); Gardner (1971); Feiling (1966); Khan (1969); Malleson (1894); re the Chawton Middletons see Honan (1987).

30. Halperin (1984); Honan (1987); Lane (1984, 1996).

31. Gardner (1971); Reid (1947).

32. Gardner (1971); Feiling (1966); Malleson (1894).

33. Letter from Jane Austen to Cassandra from Henrietta Street (15 September 1813); reproduced in Chapman (1964), pp318-325; Le Faye (1995), pp217-222.

34. Austen (1813), Pride and Prejudice.

35. Austen (1814), Mansfield Park.

36. Honan (1987); Lane (1996); Lane (1996).

37. Austen (1814), Mansfield Park, p91.

38. Austen (1816), Emma.

39. Jane Austen comment in Austen-Leigh (1870) (1926 edition, p157); quoted in Chapman (1964), p xx2.

40. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Castle Square, Southampton (1-2 October 1808); reproduced in : Chapman (1964), pp209-219; Le Faye (1995), pp139-142.

41. Austen (1816), Emma, Volume 1, Chapter 7, pp47-48.

42. Austen (1816), Emma, Volume 3, Chapter 19, p438.

43. Austen (1816), Emma, Volume 3, Chapter 19, pp438-439.

44. Austen (1816), Emma, Volume 3, Chapter 19, p440.

45. Austen (1818a), Persuasion.

46. Austen (1817), Sanditon.

47. Austen (1817), Sanditon, Chapter 6, p181.

48. Honan (1987).

49. Cartwright (1977); Cochrane (1972); Polya (1941).

50. Malthus (1798), An Essay on the Principle of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society.

51. Cartwright (1977).

52. Gopal (1963a,b); Hunter (1871); Sinha (1967).

53. Blankert et al. (1988); Dupart & Powell (1996); Jacob & Bianconi (1967); Levey (1962); Read (1965); Wheelock (1988) [of particular relevance to Jane Austen’s life are the following masterpieces: Girl reading a letter (circa 1657); Woman in blue reading a letter (circa 1662-1664); The girl with a pearl earring (circa 1665); A lady writing (circa 1665-1666); Lady writing a letter with her maid (circa 1670).]

54. Wallace (1983) has provided a technically precise comparison of the work of Jane Austen and Mozart.

2008 Postscript

55. Polya (1999b, c; 2001a, b; 2005a).

56. Polya (2008p).

Chapter 7. The sensibilities of Jane Austen’s literary contemporaries

1. Austen (1811) Sense and Sensibility, Chapter 3, p16.

2. Austen (1811) Sense and Sensibility, Chapter 10, p45.

3. Cowper (1785), The Task in Milford (1963), pp129-219.

4. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Henrietta Street, London (15-16 September 1813); reproduced in Chapman (1964), pp; Le Faye (1995), pp217-222.

5. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Godmersham Park (21 October 1813); reproduced in Chapman (1964), pp335-358; Le Fay (1995), pp241-243.

6. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Godmersham Park (6-7 November 1813); reproduced in Chapman (1964), pp369-375; Le Faye (1995), pp251-254.

7. Crabbe poem, Letter XX, The Poor of the Borough: Peter Grimes from The Borough (1810), quoted in Sherry (1966), p77..

8. Crabbe poem, The Village; quoted in Sherry (1966), p77.

9. Crabbe Letter XXII, The Poor of the Boroug : Peter Grimes from The Borough in Eastman et al. (1970), pp518-524.(1810)

10. Anonymous contemporary poem quoted in Howard (1995), p12.

11. Goldsmith (1770) The Deserted Village in Eastman et al. (1970), pp500-507.

12. Wright (1892); Milford (1963); Eastman et al. (1970).

13. Wright (1892); Honan (1987).

14. Cowper (1803) To Warren Hastings, Esq. by an Old School-Fellow of his at Westminster in Milford (1963), p416.

15. Cowper (1782) Expostulation in Milford (1963), pp43-59.

16. Fanning (1970); Maclean (1972); Gould (1978); Clark (1986).

17. Cowper (1782) Charity in Milford (1963), pp76-89.

18. Flannery (1994); Lines (1991); Morris, J. (1972) The Final Solution, Down Under reproduced in Chalk & Jonassohn (1990), pp204-222; Reynolds (1990).

19. Cowper (1785) The Task; Cowper (1785) The Task, Book II, The Time-Piece in Milford (1963), pp146-163.

20. Cowper (1793) The Negro’s Complaint in Milford (1963), pp371-372.

21. Cowper (1788) The Morning Dream in Milford (1963), pp373-374.

22. Cowper (1836) Sweet Meat has Sour Sauce in Milford (1963), pp374-375.

23. Cowper (1800) Pity the poor African in Milford (1963), pp375-376.

24. Burns (1769) The Ploughman in Barke et al. (1966), pp146-147.

25. Burns(1786) The Author’s Earnest Cry and Prayer to the Scotch Representatives in the House of Commons in McFurlan (1994), pp79-84.

26. McFurlan (1994), pp i-x.

27. Burns The Creed of Poverty in Cunningham (18xx), p125.

28. Prebble (1963).

29. Cunningham (18xx), Life of Robert Burns in Cunningham (18xx), pp i-xlvii.

30. Burns (1787), Dedication to Poems Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect.

31. Burns Written in a Lady’s Pocket-Book in Cunningham (18xx), p125.

32. Burns The Slave’s Lament in McFurlan (1994), p485.

33. John Shore, 1st Baron Teignmouth (circa 1810), poem on the 1769-1770 Bengal famine quoted by Shore (1843) & Woodruff (1965), p138.

34. Macaulay (1841), p584; Feiling (1966); Woodruff (1965).

35. Johnson (1778) in Postgate (1949), p193.

36. Johnson (1778) in Postgate (1949), p238.

37. Johnson (1783) in Postgate (1949). p286.

38. Anonymous (1842); Rhodes (1962); Durant (1975); Ayling (1985); Morwood (1985).

39. Anonymous (1842), an editing of the speeches of Sheridan by a “constitutional friend”.

40. Sheridan (1799) Pizarro, A Tragedy in Five Acts in Rhodes (1962).

41. More (1905).

42. Lord Byron poem, reproduced in Anonymous (1842), The Speeches of the Right Honorable Richard Brinsley Sheridan, p viii.

43. More (1905).

44. Carter & Mears (1962); Honan (1987); Lane (1996); Trevelyan (1952).

45. Austen (1816), Emma, Volume 2, Chapter 18, p280.

46. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Chawton (6 June 1811); reproduced in: Chapman (1964), pp288-291; Le Faye (1995), pp192-194.

47. Austen (1816), Emma, Volume 2, Chapter 17, pp270-271.

48. Emily Bronte (1847), Wuthering Heights; Charlotte Bronte (1847), Jane Eyre.

Chapter 8. The judgement of Jane Austen’s peers and successors

1. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Steventon (27-28 October 1798); reproduced in: Chapman (1964), pp22-26; Johnson (1926), pp37-42; Le Faye (1995), pp15-18.

2. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Steventon (24-26 December 1798); reproduced in: Chapman (1964), pp41-46; Johnson (1926), pp51-56; Le Faye (1995), pp28-31.

3. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Queen’s Square, Bath (17 May 1799); reproduced in: Chapman (1964), pp59-62; Le Faye (1995), pp39-41.

4. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Godmersham Park (14-15 October 1813); reproduced in: Chapman (1964), pp; Johnson (1926), pp89-99; Le Faye (1995), pp236-241.

5. Jane Austen letter to James Edward Austen from Chawton (16-17 December 1816); reproduced in: Chapman (1964), pp467-470; Johnson (1926), pp467-470; Le Faye (1995), pp322-324.

6. Austen-Leigh (1870), p348.

7. Letter of Jane Austen to Cassandra from Henrietta Street, London (15-16 September 1813) in Chapman (1964), p318-325; Le Faye (1995), pp217-222.

8. Austen (1816), Emma, dedication to His Royal Highness the Prince Regent.

9. Austen letter re Emma to the Reverend J.S.Clarke, 11 December 1815, reproduced in Heath (1961).

10. Austen letter to the Reverend J.S.Clarke re a suggested “House of Saxe Coburg” novel (1 April 1816), reproduced in Heath (1961).

11. Anonymous review (1818), British Critic, new series,vol. IX (March 1818) pp293-301, reproduced in Southam (1976a), pp41-47.

12. Sir Walter Scott (Journal 14 March 1826), quoted by Howard (1995), p6 & by Southam (1976b), p155.

13. Sir Walter Scott in the Quarterly Review vol. XIV (October 1815), reproduced in Southam (1976b), pp36-39. & in Heath (1961); see also Halperin (1975).

14. Sir Walter Scott, Journal (18 September 1827), reproduced in Southam (1976b), p53.

15. Halperin (1975); Heath (1961); Southam (1975a,b).

16. Macaulay essay, Edinburgh Review (January 1843), reproduced in Southam (1976b).

17. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Henrietta Street, London (15-16 September 1813); reproduced in Chapman (1964), pp; Le Faye (1995), pp217-222.

18. Austen-Leigh (1870), p282.

19. Austen-Leigh (1870), p373.

20. Whately (anonymous) review (1881) in the Quarterly Review vol. 24, pp352-376; reproduced in Heath (1961).

21. Lewes (1852) in the Westminster Review vol. 58, pp 134-135; reproduced in Southam (1976b).

22. Brontë letter to G.H. Lewes (12 January 1848), quoted in Southam (1976b, pp55-56; reproduced in Heath (1961).

23. Brontë letter to G.H. Lewes (18 January 1848) quoted in Southam (1976b), p56; reproduced in Heath (1961).

24. Brontë letter to W.S. Williams (12 April 1850) quoted in Southam (1976b), pp56-57; reproduced in Heath (1961).

25. G.H. Lewes essay (1859), quoted by Monaghan (1981), p89.

26. Kavanagh (1862) in English Women of Letters (1862) quoted in Southam (1976b), p60.

27. Simpson in 1870, quoted by Monaghan (1981), pp89-90.

28. Simpson in 1870, quoted in Southam (1976b), p63.

29. Smith (1890), p185.

30. Southam (1987).

31. Joseph Conrad in 1913 in a lettter to H.G. Wells, quoted in Lauber (1993), p133.

32. Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) in 1896, quoted in Southam (1987), p232.

33. Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) in 1898, quoted in Southam (1987), p232.

34. Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) in 1909, quoted in Southam (1987), p232.

35. Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) in 1909, quoted in Southam (1987), pp232-233.

36. Henry James in 1906, quoted in Southam (1987), pp229-230.

37. Henry James in 1914, quoted in Southam (1987), p234.

38. Wilson (1945), A long talk about Jane Austen, reproduced in Watt (1963), pp35-40.

39. Villard (1924), p67.

40. Villard (1924), p71.

41. Jane Austen letter to James Edward Austen from Chawton(16 December 1816) as quoted in Villard (1924), p129; for precise transcription see Chapman (1964), pp467-470; Johnson (1926), pp467-470; Le Faye (1995), pp322-324.

42 Villard (1924), pp129-130.

43. Villard (1924), p248.

44. Bailey (1931); Bradbrook (1966); Bush (1975); Cecil (1935); Chapman (1949); Craik (1965); De Rose (1980); Gooneratne (1970); Halperin (1975); Hardy (1984); Hardy (1979); Harris (1989); Heath (1961); Johnson (1924); Lascelles (1939); Lauber (1993); Litz (1965); McMaster (1976); Morris (1987); Moler (1978); Mudrick (1968); Scott (1982); Sherry (1966); Southam (1964, 1976a, 1976b, 1987); Thompson (1951); Villard (1924); Watt (1963); Weldon (1984); Wiesenfarth (1967); Wiltshire (1976).

45. Halperin (1975); Southam (1987); Watt (1963).

46. Virginia Woolf in 1923, quoted by Southam (1987), p301.

47. Virginia Woolf (1924); reproduced in Heath (1961); quoted in Southam (1987), p281.

48. Johnson (1924), p4.

49. Johnson (1924), p19.

50. Arnold Bennett in 1922-1928 in the Evening Standard, quoted in Southam (1987), pp287-288.

51. Bailey (1931), p23.

52. Johnson (1924), p53.

53. Johnson (1927), pp163-164.

54. Auden poem, Letter to Lord Byron in Auden (1937), Letters from Iceland; quoted in Southam (1987), p299; Watt (1963), pp11-12.

55. Wells (1938), The Brothers, p15; quoted in Southam (1987), p301.

56. Amis (1957), What became of Jane Austen? (a critique of Mansfield Park); reproduced in Watt (1963), pp141-144.

57. C.S.Lewis (1954), A note on Jane Austen, reproduced in Watt (1963), pp25-34.

58. Southam, B.C. (1977), Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1977), Macropaedia, Volume 2, pp377-378.

59. Lane (1986, 1996); Weldon (1984).

60. Weldon (1984).

61. Lord Halifax’s Advice to His Daughter quoted in Monaghan (1981), Jane Austen and the position of women, chapter 7 in Monaghan (1981), pp105-121.

62. Alexander Pope poem Of the Characters of Women, reproduced in Hayward (1978), pp208-212.

63. Austen (1813), Pride and Prejudice; Austen (1814), Mansfield Park.

64. Sulloway (1989).

65. Jane Austen’s life: Austen-Leigh (1870); Austen-Leigh (1920); Austen-Leigh & Austen-Leigh (1913); Fergus (1991); Halperin (1984); Hodge (1972); Honan (1987); Hubback & Hubback (1906); Hugesson (1960); Jenkins (1973); Lane (1984, 1986, 1996); MacDonagh; Pinion (1975); Smith (1890); Smithers (1981); Thomson (1929); Tucker (1983); Wilks (1978).

66. Literary criticism: Bailey (1931); Bloom (1986); Bradbrook (1966); Brown (1973); Bush (1975); Butler (1975); Cecil (1935); Chapman (1949); Craik (1965); De Rose (1980); Dussinger (1990); Dwyer (1989); Gard (1992); Gay (1990); Gooneratne (1970); Halperin (1975); Handler & Segal (1990); Hardy (1984); Hardy (1979); Harris (1989); Heath (1961); Johnson (1924); Lascelles (1939); Lauber (1993); Liddell (1966); Litz (1965); Lodge (1991); Maker (1989); Mansell (1978); McMaster (1976); Morris (1987); Moler (1978); Monaghan (1980); Mooneyham (1988); Morgan (1980); Mudrick (1968); Nardin (1973); Nordhjem (1987); Oldmark (1981); O’Neill (1971); Paris (1978); Powell (1993); Rubinstein (1969); Ruoff (1992); Scott (1982); Sherry (1966); Southam (1964, 1968, 1976a, 1976b, 1987); Tanner (1986); Thompson (1951); Villard (1924); Warner (1964); Watt (1963); Weldon (1984); Wiesenfarth (1967); Wilkes (1991); Williams (1986); Wiltshire (1976); Wiltshire (1992); Wood (1993); Wright (1957).

67. Word use & language: Burrows (1987); Page (1970); Phillips (1970); Stokes (1991).

68. Sociology, history & philosophy: Brown (1979); Devlin (1975); Fergus (1983); Grey (1989); Hudson (1992); Johnson (1988); Kent (1989); Koppel (1988); Lane (1984, 1986, 1996); Monaghan (1981); Myer (1980); Roberts (1979); Weldon (1984).

69. Music: Wallace (1983); Piggott (1979) [while Handel appears, his patron and important Jane Austen family connection, James Brydges, does not rate a mention]; Wallace (1983).

70. Youthful works: Austen (1791); Austen (1800); Austen & Another (1975); Austen & Another (1977); Chapman (1932, 1954); Grey (1989); Johnson (1926); Kaplan (1992); Knatchbull-Hugesson (1884).

71. Female & feminist perspective: Brown (1979); Horwitz (1991); Johnson (1988); Kaye-Smith & Stern (1943); Kirkham (1983); Muckherjee (1991); Smith (1983); Sulloway (1989); Todd (1983); Weldon (1984).

72. Life, health and lifestyle: Howard (1995); Lane (1986, 1996); Nicolson (1991); Watkins (1990); Weldon (1984); Wiltshire (1992).

73. Hudson (1992).

74. Wallace (1983).

75. Burrows (1987).

76. Disraeli read Pride and & Prejudice 17 times according to the Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1961), Volume 2, p699; Trevelyan (1952).

77. Fraser (1980).

78. Cunningham (1996); Edwards & Williams (1957); Litton (1994); Woodham-Smith (1962).

79. Churchill (1952), vol. 5, p377.

2008 Postscript

80. Polya (2008i-m).

81. Dawkins (2006), pp254-259 – describing a very disturbing survey by Israeli psychologist George Tamarin of Jewish childrens’attitudes to Joshua’s extermination of the Palestinians.

82. Fullerton & Harbers (2001).

Chapter 9. The East India Company, the Black Hole and the conquest of Bengal

1. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra (15-16 September 1796); reproduced in: Chapman (1964), pp13-15; Faye (1995), pp9-11; Johnson (1926), p5.

2. J.Z.Holwell quoted by Forbes, Oriental Memoirs, II, p457 & Spear (1971), p195.

3. Famous Robert Clive assertion during the Parliamentary inquiry, 1973; quoted by: Cohen & Cohen (1961), p112; Palmer (1981), p73; Churchill (1965), p225.

4. Capper (1853; Carey (1882); Chaudhuri (1975); Churchill (1965); Datta (1977, 1978); Davies (1935, 1939); Dodwell (1963, 1967); Dunbar (1936, 1943, 1951); Edwardes (1961, 1967, 1977); Embree (1962); Feiling (1966); Gardner (1971); Garnett (1976); Ghosh (1944); Gleig (1841); Gopal (1963a,b); Greenough (1982); Grieve (1974) [ T.B. Macaulay’s essays on Lord Clive & Warren Hastings]; Gupta (1977); Hastings (1787); Hunter (1871); Islam (1982); Kaye (1853); Khan (1969); Kopf (1969); Lawford (1976); Lawson (1905); Lyall (1907, 1916, 1989); Majumdar (1960, 1969, 1976, 1977); Malleson (1885, 1894); Marshall (1965,1976, 1993); Masani (1960); Mason (1916); Misra (1961); Moon (1947, 1989); Muckherjee (1958); Muir ((1917, 1929); Nolan (18xx); Philips (1961); Reid (1947); Richmond (1984); Roberts (1958); Sinha (1967); Smith (1776); Spear (1971, 1975, 1979); Srivastava (1981); Teignmouth (1843); Thompson & Garratt (1934); Traeger (1979); Trotter (1890); Turnbull (1975); Wheeler (1860); Wilbur (1945); Woodruffe (1953).

5. Embree (1962); Ghosh (1944); Gopal (1963a); Grieve (1974); Grant (18xx); Greenough (1982); Hastings (1772); Hunter (1871); Khan (1969); Roberts (1953, 1958); Robinson (1984); Sinha (1967); Smith (1776); Spear (1979); Teignmouth (1843).

6. Barber (1966); Capper (1853); Carey (1882); Chaudhuri (1975); Datta (1977); Davies (1935, 1939); Dodwell (1963, 1967); Dunbar (1936, 1943, 1951); Edwardes (1977); Feiling (1966); Gardner (1971); Garrett (1976); Gleig (1841) [he assumed the reader was familiar with the story]; Grieve (1963) [including Macaulay’s account in his essay Lord Clive]; Holwell (1778) - his own account, reproduced in Macfarlane (1975); Lawford (1976); Lyall (1907); Macaulay (1840); Malleson (1885); Moon (1947, 1989); Nolan (18xx); Spear (1975, 1979) [more critical views ; maybe 64 into the Black Hole and 21 surviving]; Trotter (1890); Turnbull (1975); Wheeler (18600; Woodruff (1953) [p96; “Everyone knows what happened that evening of a Calcutta June” ]

7. Datta (1977) in Majumdar & Dighe (1977); Einbinder (1972), pp184-187; Little (1915); Majumdar & Dighe (1977).

8. Gopal (1963b); Macfarlane (1975), pp229-230; Mukherjee (1958), p261

9. Gopal (1963a,b); Hunter (1871); Sinha (1967).

10. Datta (1971); Gopal (1963b); Macfarlane (1975).

11. Churchill (1965); Edwardes (1967); Embree (1962); Feiling (1966); Gardner (1971); Ghosh (1944); Gopal (1963a); Hunter (1871); Islam (1982); Kaye (1853); Khan (1969); Lyall ,1916, 1989); Majumdar (1960); Majumdar (1976); Malleson (1894; 1985); Marshall (1976); Marshall (1993); Mason (1916); Misra (1961); Moon (1947, 1988); Muir ((1917, 1929); Reid (1947); Roberts (1958); Sinha (1967); Smith (1776); Spear (1971); Spear (1979); Srivastava (1981); Teignmouth (1843); Thompson & Garratt (1934); Traeger (1979); Trotter (1890); Turnbull (1975); Wilbur (1945); Woodruff (1953).

12. Bhatia (1991); Chatterjee (1944); Chopra (1988); Das (1949); Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982); Sen (1981); Uppal (1984).

13. Kennedy (1993); Rosenzweig & Parry (1994); United Nations Population Division (1992).

14. Capper (1853); Carey (1882); Datta (1977, 1978); Dodwell (1963, 1967); Dunbar (1943); Gardner (1971); Hunter (1890, 1912); Majumdar & Dighe (1977); Moon (1989); Mukherjee (1958); Nolan (18xx); Reid (1947); Spear (1979); Wheeler (1860); Wilbur (1945); Wooruff (1953).

15. Smith (1776), pp600-601.

16. Smith (1776), p601.

17. Gardner (1971), p38.

18. Johnson (1984), chapter 3, pp53-89.

19. Smithers (1981), p124; Honan (1987), p409.

20. Trevelyan (1938), p240.

21. Sinha (1967).

22. Datta (1971); Gopal (1963b); Macfarlane (1975); Sinha (1967).

23. Barber (1966); Reid (1947); Wilbur (1945).

24. Holwell (1758) A Genuine Narrative of the Deplorable Deaths of the English Gentlemen and Others who were Suffocated in the Blasck Hole in Fort William, at Calcutta; reproduced in Macfarlane (1975).

25. Stanhope (1784); partly reproduced in Nair (1984).

26. Jog (1944).

27. Little (1915-1916) in Bengal Past and Present; July 1915 & January 1916, quoted by Einbinder (1972), pp184-187 & Dodwell (1963a), p156.

28. Einbinder (1972), pp184-187.

29. Gopal (1963b), Appendix, Note on the Black Hole, pp351-357.

30. Macfarlane (1975).

31. Barber (1966).

32. Clayton (1931); Cohn (1967); Farmer (1985); Koestler (1971), Anatomy of a Canard (a review of Edgar Morin (1970), Rumour in Orleans), reproduced in Koestler (1974), pp89-91; Sartre (1946); Woolley (1927), pp115-116.

33. Datta (1977), p112.

34. Spears (1979), p156.

35. Edwardes (1977), pp89-91.

36. Nolan (18xx), pp245-247.

37. Samuel Johnson in Boswell’s Life , 7 April, 1775; quoted by Evans (1968).

38. Bickerton & Pearson (1991); Darwish & Alexander (1991); Hiro (1992).

39. Wells (1951).

40. Rusbridger & Nave (1991).

41. Churchill (1952).

42. Kimball (1984).

43. Macfarlane (1975), Chapter 9, p207.

44. Hunter (1890), p381.

45. Curzon (1925).

46. For Lord Curzon’s parsimony see Edwardes (1967), pp230-231.

47. Ranindranath Tagore, quoted in Macfarlane (1975), Chapter 9, p207.

48. Keesing’s Contemporary Archives, 12-19 October 1940, p4279B.

49. Bhatia (1991); Das (1949); Drèze & Sen (1989); Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982); Sen (1981).Uppal (1984).

50. Carey (1882); Garrett (1976); Macauley (1840), p506; Nair (1975); Stanhope (1778).

51. Dunbar (1951); Lawford (1976); Macaulay (1840); Moon (1947, 1969); Mukherjee (1958).

52. Dodwell (1967).

53. Dodwell (1967); Moon (1989).

54. Feiling (1966).

55. Chaudhuri (1975); Davies (1939).

56. Dodwell (1963).

57. Lyall ((1916), pp143-144.

58. Davies (1939); Edwardes (1977); Garrett (1976); Malleson (1885).

59. Davies (1939); Dunbar (1936).

60. Gardner (1971); Lyall (1916); Reid (1947); Wilbur (1945); Woodruffe (1953).

61. A remarkable set of examples includes those that dismiss the major event of the period, the Great Bengal Famine of 1769-1770, in a few words: Ballhatchett (1965); Churchill (1965); Edwardes (1967); Gardner (1971): Kaye (1853): Lyall (1916) and Wilbur (1945); and those that fail to mention this disaster at all [according to my reading of their work ] : Ayling (1991); Barber (1986); Baxter (1988); Barraclough (1982); Black (1992); Carter & Mears (1960); Chaudhuri (1988); Dodwell (1963b); Derry (1962); Edwardes (1967); Ehrman (1969); Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1961 edition); Grun (1975); Hunt (1905); Halliday (1986); Langer (1953); Mabbett (1988); Plumb (1950); Porter (1986); Reilly (1978); Roberts (1963a,b); Rose (1925); Rosebery (1902); Stanhope (1861); Trevelyan (1960); Vadgama (1984); Wells (1956); Williams (1966).

62. Bolts (1772); Embree (1986); Gopal (1963a); Grant (18xx); Grieve (1974) [Macaulay’s account]; Hunter (1871); Khan (1969); Malleson (1885); Roberts (1958); Robinson (1984); Smith (1776); Spear (1979); Teignmouth (1843).

63. Smith (1776).

64. Gopal (1963a,b); Macfarlane (1975); Sinha (1967).

65. Dodwell (1963b), p156.

66. Dodwell (1963a,b).

Chapter 10. The Great Bengal Famine of 1769-1770

1. Austen (1814) Mansfield Park, Chapter 48, p446.

2. Austen (1818b) Northanger Abbey, Chapter 24, p201.

3. Churchill (1965), Book 8, Chapter 15, p225.

4. Weldon (1984), Letters to Alice on First Reading Jane Austen, p93.

5. Ballhatchet (1965); Bayly (1988); Bolts (1772); Bose (1993); Carey (1882); Churchill (1965); Datta (1961, 1978); Davies (1935, 1939); Dunbar (1943; Edwardes (1961, 1967); Embree (1962); Feiling (1966); Fortescue (1967); Gardner (1971); Ghosh (1944); Gleig (1841); Gopal (1963); Greenough (1982); Grieve (1974) [T.B. Macaulay’s essay on Clive]; Hastings (1787); Hunter (1871, 1890); Islam (1982); Kaye (1853); Khan (1969); Kopf (1969); Lovett (1963a,b); Lyall (1907, 1916, 1989); Macaulay (1840); Majumdar (1969, 1976, 1977); Malleson (1894; 1985); Marshall (1976, 1987, 1993); Mason (1916); Mason (1985); Misra (1961); Moon (1947, 1989); Muir ((1917, 1929); Mukherjee (1958); Reid (1947); Richmond (1984); Roberts (1909a,b,1958); Sinha (1967); Smith (1776); Spear (1971); Spear (1979); Srivastava (1981); Teignmouth (1843); Thompson & Garratt (1934); Traeger (1979); Trotter (1890); Turnbull (1975); Wheeler (1860); Wilbur (1945); Woodruff (1953 , 1965).

6. Austen (1811), Sense and Sensibility, Chapter 10, p49.

7. Greenough (1982)

8. Bissio (1990); Chaliand & Rageau (1985); Greenough (198); Kidron & Segal (1987).

9. Edwardes (1967); Embree (1962); Feiling (1966); Gardner (1971); Gopal (1963); Hunter (1871); Kaye (1853); Khan (1969); Lyall (1916); Majumdar (1976); Malleson (1894); Marshall (1993); Misra (1959); Reid (1947); Roberts (1958); Sinha (1967); Smith (1776); Spear (1965, 1971); Wilbur (1945).

10. Marshall (1993), The Company and the coolies, in Marshall (1993) (editor), pp23-38.

11. The 1765 exchange rate can be calculated to be 1 Rupee = 0.1125 pound according to Dunbar (1951), p91; the 1782 figure was about 1 Rupee = 0.105 pound according to Hunter (1871), p83.

12. Greenough (1982).

13. Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982).

14. Edwardes (1967); Embree (1962); Feiling (1966); Gardner (1971); Gopal (1963); Hunter (1871); Kaye (1853); Khan (1969); Lyall (1916); Majumdar (1976); Malleson (1894); Misra (1959); Reid (1947); Roberts (1958); Sinha (1967); Spear (1965); Wilbur (1945).

15. Austen (1811), Sense and Sensibility.

16. Marshall (1993), The Company and the coolies, in Marshall (1993) (editor), pp23-38.

17. Hunter (1871), The Annals of Rural Bengal.

18. Embree (1962); Gopal (1963); Grieve (1974); Grant (18xx); Hastings (1772) [and other eye-witnesses of the event and its aftermath quoted by Hunter (1871)]; Khan (1969); Roberts (1953, 1958); Robinson (1984)); Sinha (1967); Smith (1776); Spear (1979); Teignmouth (1843).

19. Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982);

20. Crossman (1946); Crossman’s observations (1945), quoted in Wasserstein (1988), pp356-357.

21. Letter from the President and Council at Fort William to the Court of Directors, 11 September 1770, quoted in Hunter (1871), p30.

22. John Shore (Lord Teignmouth) poem quoted in: Hunter (1871), p26; Teignmouth (1843), vol. 1, pp25-26; Woodruff (1965), p138.

23. Charles Grant, Observations of the State of Asia, quoted at length in Embree (1963).

24. Warren Hastings report to the “ Hon’ble the Court of Directors for Affairs of the Hon’ble the United Company of Merchants of England trading to the East Indies”, 3 November 1772; reproduced in Hunter (1871), appendix A.

25. Hunter (1871).

26. Stanhope (1784; 1909 edition), reproduced in Nair (1984), 166-179.

27. Nair (1984), chapter 10, pp166-179.

28. Hunter (1871).

29. Uppall (198).

30. Hunter (1871).

31. De Grandpre (1801), reproduced in Nair (1984), chapter 14.; Stanhope (1784), reproduced in Nair (1984); Nair (1984); Spear (1971).

32. Hunter (1871).

33. Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982); Kachhawaha (1992).

34. Hunter (1871).

35. Ballhatchet (1965), p220, quoting a Despatch from Bengal, 3 November 1771, India Office Records, Letters from Bengal, vol.XI, p84.; Bose (1993), pp17-18;Embree (1962); Hastings (1772); Hunter (1871); Khan (1969); Roberts (1909b), p566; Sinha (1967); Smith (1876).

36. Hunter (1871).

37. Drèze & Sen (1989); Sen (1981).

38. Gardner (1971); Hastings (1772); Hunter (1871).

39. Bolts (1772); Embree (1962); Grant (18xx); Hastings (1772) [he quotes eye-witness accounts and Company reports]; Hunter (1871); Nair (1984); Stanhope (1774); Teignmouth (1843).

40. Warren Hastings report to the Company Directors, 3 November 1772; reproduced in Hunter (1871), appendix A.

41. Hunter (1871).

42. Bolts (1772); Bose (1993); Embree (1986); Gopal (1963a); Grant (18xx); Grieve (1974) [Macaulay’s account]; Hunter (1871); Khan (1969); Malleson (1885); Roberts (1958); Robinson (1984); Smith (1776); Spear (1979); Teignmouth (1843).

43. Hunter (1871).

44. Smith (1776).

45. Ballhatchet (1965); Bayly (1988); Bhatia (1991); Bhattacharya (1967); Black (1971); Churchill (1965); Davies (1935, 1939); Embree (1988); Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1977, 1779); Feiling (1966); Fortescue (1967); Greenough (1982); Hunt (1905); Jog (1944); Kopf (1969); Mehra (1985); Macfarlane (1975); Majumdar (1976); Malleson (1894); Maloo (1987); Marshall (1976, 1987); Mason (1985); Mehra (1985); Misra (1959); Muir (1929); Raychaudhuri (1988) in Embree (1988); Reid (1947); Roberts (1909); Sen (1981); Spear (1965, 1971); Watson (1960).

46. Carey (1882); Churchill (1965); Dunbar (1951); Edwardes (1961, 1967); Feiling (1966); Hunter (1871, 1890); Gardner (1971); Gleig (1841); Kaye (1853); Lovett (1963a,b); Lyall (1907, 1916); Wilbur (1945).

47. Kaye (1853), p168.

48. Lyall (1916), chapters 8-10, pp138-183.

49. Lyall (1907), p35.

50. Wilbur (1945), chapters 18 & 19, pp254-288.

51. Churchill (1965), A History of the English-Speaking Peoples. The Age of Revolution, pp225-226.

52. Edwardes (1961), pp211-212; Edwardes (1967), pp228-231.

53. Gardner (1971), pp103-105.

54. Carey (1882), p54.

55. Dunbar (1951), p91.

56. Feiling (1966), p85.

57. Hunter (1871).

58. Hunter (1890), pp387-388.

59. Gleig (1841), Volume 1, p150.

60. Ayling (1991); Barber (1986); Baxter (1988); Barraclough (1982); Black (1992); Capper (1853); Carter & Mears (1960); Chaudhuri (1988); Derry (1962); Dodwell (1963a,b); Edwardes (1967); Ehrman (1969); Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1961 edition); Grun (1975); Hunt (1905); Halliday (1986); Langer (1953); Lawson (1905); Mabbett (1988); Masani (1960); Plumb (1950); Porter (1986); Reilly (1978); Roberts (1963a,b); Rose (1925); Rosebery (1902); Stanhope (1861); Trevelyan (1960); Vadgama (1984); Ward (1965); Wells (1956); Williams (1966) [my apologies if I have missed a footnote or a “10 words for 10 million victims” entry].

61. Porter (1986), p88.

62. Bayly (1988); Bose (1993); Marshall (1987); Dodwell (1963a,b); Lovett (1963a,b) in Dodwell (1963a).

63. Langer (1952); Grun (1975).

64. Darlington (1969).

65. Freund (1984); Martin (1929) in Rose et al. (1929).

66. Wells (1956), The Outline of History.

67. Trevelyan (1952), History of England.

68. Edwards & Williams (1957); Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1977), Slavery, serfdom and forced labour, Volume 16, pp853-866; Woodham-Smith (1962).

69. Einbinder (1972), pp184-187.

70. Holwell (1778), reproduced in Macfarlane (1975);

71. Gopal (1963b); Little (1913); Macfarlane (1975), pp229-230.

72. Barber (1966); Carter & Mears (1960); Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1961 edition); Grun (1975); Halliday (1986); Langer (1953); Porter (1986).

73. Joseph Stalin aphorism, quoted in Marsden (1988), p23.

74. Elton (1996), Popcorn, p267.

75. Macfarlane (1975), p230.

76. Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1977, 1979), Macropaedia, vol. 9, p405.

77. Gopal (1969a), p32.

78. Feiling (1966), p75.

79. Muir (1929), p437.

80. Grant (1792), p8; quoted in Embree (1962), p38.

81. Woodruff (1965), p138.

82. Trager (1979), p314.

83. Malleson (1985), pp199-200.

84. Misra (1959), p113.

85. Hunter (1871), p63.

86. Majumbar (1976), p157.

87. Gopal (1963a), p17.

88. Horace Walpole quoted in: Kopf (1969), pp13-14; see also Dodwell (1963a) (editor), The Cambridge History of India,Volume V, p187 [Walpole quoted but with the part mentioning of the Bengal Famine of 1770 deleted. ].

89. Moon (1989), p146.

90. Mukherjee (1958), pp351-352.

91. Trotter (1890), p53.

92. Wheeler (1860), pp55-56.

93. Majumdar & Dighe (1977), p357.

94. T.B. Macaulay (1840) essay on Lord Clive, reproduced in Grieve (1974), pp 479-549.

95. Trevelyan (1952).

96. Churchill (1965), pp225-226.

97. Das (1949); Drèze & Sen (1989); Greenough (1982); Sen (1981); Uppal (1984).

2008 Postscript

98. Schama (2002).

99. Polya, G.M. (2003), pp 204, 530.

100. Blainey (2000, 2004); Garratty & Gay (1972); McNeil (1979); Ponting (2000).

101. Polya, G. (2008m).

Chapter 11. Warren Hastings and the conquest of India

1. Austen (1811) Sense and Sensibility, Chapter 10, p49.

2. Hastings letter to the East India Company Secret Committee, 1772; reproduced in Fortescue (1967) (editor), pp 385-392.

3. Hastings letter to the East India Company Directors, 5 May 1781; reproduced in Islam (1982), p5.

4. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Ibthrop (Ibethorp), 30 November - 1 December 1800; reproduced in Le Faye (1995), pp63-64; for details of the “faithful” Maria Payne see Le Faye (1995), pp373, 534 & 561; Smithers (1981), pp116-117.

5. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Godmersham, 30 June - I July, 1802; reproduced in Le Faye (1995), p138; see also Le Faye (1995), p390 re the William Hodges painting at Daylesford of Mrs Hastings’ heroic Ganges journey to nurse Warren Hastings, Mrs Hastings at the Rocks of Colgong.

6. Davies (1935); Feiling (1966); Gleig (1841); Grieve (1961), T.B. Macaulay essay, Warrren Hastings; Macaulay (1841); Hastingss (1787); Kopf (1969); Lawson (1905); Lyall (1907); Marshall (1965); Malleson (1894); Mehra (1985); Moon (1947); Trotter (1890); Turnbull (1975); Woodruff (1965), Warren Hastings, Chapter 4.

7. Capper (1853; Carey (1882); Chaudhuri (1975); Churchill (1965); Datta (1977, 1978); Davies (1935, 1939); Dodwell (1963, 1967); Dunbar (1936, 1943, 1951); Edwardes (1961, 1967, 1977); Embree (1962); Feiling (1966); Gardner (1971); Garnett (1976); Ghosh (1944); Gleig (1841); Gopal (1963a,b); Greenough (1982); Grieve (1961, 1974) [ T.B. Macaulay’s essays on Lord Clive & Warren Hastingd ]; Gupta (1977); Hastings (1787); Hunter (1871); Islam (1982); Kaye (1853); Khan (1969); Kopf (1969); Lawford (1976); Lawson (1905); Lyall (1907, 1916, 1989); Majumdar (1960, 1969, 1976, 1977); Malleson (1885, 1894); Marshall (1965,1976, 1993); Masani (1960); Mason (1916); Misra (1959); Moon (1947, 1989); Muckherjee (1958); Muir ((1917, 1929); Nair (1984); Nolan (18xx); Philips (1961); Reid (1947); Richmond (1984); Roberts (1958); Sinha (1967); Smith (1776); Spear (1971, 1975, 1979); Srivastava (1981); Teignmouth (1843); Thompson & Garratt (1934); Traeger (1979); Trotter (1890); Turnbull (1975); Wheeler (1860); Wilbur (1945); Woodruffe (1953).

8. Hastings (1772); reproduced in Hunter (1871).

9. Honan (1987), p411.

10. Stanhope (1784).

11. Marshall (1965), p133.

12. Capper (1853); Dodwell (1967); Khan (1969); Majumdar & Dighe (1977).

13. Majumdar & Dighe (1977), p374.

14. Anstey (1962, 1966); Forbath (1978); Martelli (1962).

15. Macaulay (1841), p584.

16. Feiling (1966); Woodruff (1965).

17. Macaulay (1841); quoted by Moon (1947), p160.

2008 Postscript

18. Chomsky (2007).

19. Polya (2008k, l, m).

20. UN Genocide Convention (1948), Article 2: “In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: a) Killing members of the group; b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group”.

Chapter 12. The impeachment of Warren Hastings and the judgement of history

1. Jane Austen letter to Cassandra from Henrietta Street, London, 15-16 September 1813; reproduced in: Chapman (1964), pp318-325 ; Le Faye (1995), pp217-222. For further analysis see Le Faye (1995), pp 419, 486-487, 534.

2. Austen (1818b) Northanger Abbey, Chapter 14, p111.

3. Robert Clive letter (30 December 1758); quoted in: Forrest, Life of Clive, Volume 2, p120; Spear (1971), p195.

4. Edmund Burke (circa 1790) quoted by: Bose (1960), pp2-3; Islam (1982), p5.

5. Warren Hastings speech to Parliament; quoted by Malleson (1894), p439.

6. Davies (1935); Feiling (1966); Lyall (1989); Malleson (1894); Mason (1985); Moon (1947); Moon (1988); Trotter (1890); Turnbull (1975); Woodruff (1953).

7. Grieve (1974), T.B. Macaulay essay on Warren Hastings, pp550-649.

8. Embree (1962, 1988); Fortescue (1967); Gardner (1971); Ghosh (1944); Gopal (1963a); Greenough (1982); Grieve (1974); Hunter (1871); Kaye (1853); Khan (1969); Kopf (1969); Lyall (1916); Malleson (1985); Marshall (1976, 1993); Misra (1959); Nair (1984); Reid (1947); Roberts (1958); Sinha (1967); Spear (1971, 1979); Srivastava (1981); Stanhope (1784); Teignmouth (1843); Thomson & Garratt (1934); Wilbur (1945)

9. Carter & Mears (1962); Muir (1917); Trevelyan (1952); Wells (1984).

10. Anonymous (1842); Ayling (1985); Durant (1975); Morwood (1985); Rhodes (1962).

11. Anonymous (1842), The Speeches of the Right Honourable Richard Brinsley Sheridan.

12. D’Alpuget (1982); McClelland (1991); Morosi (1975); Whitlam (1979).

13. Feiling (1966); Gardner (1971); Marshall (1965), p47; see also Turnbull (1975), p206.

14. Edmund Burke speech to Parliament (1790?), quoted in: Gardner (1971), p132; Reid (1947), pp132-133.

15. Edmund Burke assertions, quoted by Feiling (1966), pp354-355.

16. Gardner (1971), p132.

17. Austen (1818b), Northanger Abbey, Chapter 24, pp201-202.

18. Morwood (1985), p124.

19. Feiling (1966), pp394-395.

20. Woodruffe (1965), p132.

21. Grieve (1974), Macaulay

22. Malleson (1894), p547.

23. Kaye (1853), p88.

24. Greenough (1982); Ghosh (1944).

25. Lyall (1916), p297.

26. Reid (1947), pp133-136.

27. Gardner (1971), pp130-131.

28. Woodruffe (1965), p132.

29. Wilbur (1945), chapters 19 & 20, pp274 -303.

30. Wells (1959), p1050.

31. Muir (1929), p443.

32. Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1977), Warren Hastings, Macropaedia, vol. 8, 665-666.

33. Trevelyan (1952), p594.

34. Carter & Mears (1962), p742.

35. Speech by Sir George Cornewall Lewis, House of Commons Debates, February 12, 1858; quoted by Gopal (1963a), p9.

36. Nair (1984).

37. Mackintosh (nom de plume) (1782), A day as it is commonly spent by an Englishman in Bengal, Letter 55 to J.M. Esq., Calcutta December 23, 1779, reproduced in Nair (1984), pp184-186; (This work was revised, printed and possibly even written by Philip Francis, presumed author of Letters of Junius).

38. Corbett (1966); De Grandpre ((1801); Mitchell (ca 1775); Nair (1984); Spear (1971); Stanhope (1784); Stavorinus (1798).

39. Fane (ca 1840), p33.

40. Corbett (1966); De Grandpre ((1801); Mitchell (ca 1775); Nair (1984); Stanhope (1784); Stavorinus (1798).

41. Allen & Mason (1975); Allen & Diwedi (1984), p263.

42. Broad (1951, 1963); Churchill (1952); Gilbert (1988); Rose (1995).

2008 Postscript

43. Polya (2008i, j, k, l, m).

44. Pinter (2005).

45. Brussells Tribunal (2008).

46. Polya (2005l, m, 2008i, j).

Chapter 13. Colonial famine, genocide and ethnocide

1. Lord Hastings (1813), Private Journal I, p30 quoted by Spear (1971), p198 and by Plumb (1963), p178.

2. C.E. Trevelyan (1835), British Treasury bureaucrat, Report on the Inland Customs and Town Duties of the Bengal Presidency; quoted by Sinha (1967), pp116-117.

3. C.E. Trevelyan (1840), evidence on textile trade and tariffs given to a British Parliamentary Enquiry Committee; quoted in Gopal (1963a).

4. Letter of C.E. Trevelyan to Lord Monteagle (1846), quoted in Edwards & Williams (1957), p257.

5. Famine Commission Report (1880); quoted in Kachhawaha (1985), p32..

6. Lord Curzon (January 1900) quoted in Edwardes (1967), pp230-231.

7. Reverend James Walker, M.A., Church of England Minister, North Parramatta, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (1846); quoted by Buggy & Cates (1982), p8.

8. Abbate (1972); Bussagli & Sivaramamurti (1978).

9. Abbate (1972); Blurton (1992); Bussagli & Sivaramamurti (1978); De Smedt (1983); Guirand (1959), Mythology of India, pp339-392; Harle (1986); Havell (1974); Lawrence (1963); Pal (1988).

10. Hunter (1871); Sinha (1967).

11. Drèze & Sen (1989); Sen (1981a,b).

12. Gopal (1963a); Muckherjee (1958), p304; Sinha (1967).

13. Bhatia (1991); Gopal (1963a); Greenough (1982); Ghosh (1944); Hunter (1871); Sinha (1967).

14. Drèze & Sen (1989); Gangrade & Dhadda (1973); Loveday (1914); Merewether (1985); Singh (1991).

15. Bhatia (1991); Drèze & Sen (1989).

16. Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982); Kachhawaha (1985).

17. Kachhawaha (1985), p310.

18. Greenough (1982).

19. Cook & Stevenson (1991), Ghosh (1944), Greenough (1982), Kachhawaha (1992), Langer (1952), Maloo (1987), Roberts (1958), Sen (1981) and Spear (1965).

20. Drèze & Sen (1989); Sen (1981).

21. C.E. Trevelyan (1835), British Treasury bureaucrat, Report on the Inland Customs and Town Duties of the Bengal Presidency; quoted by Sinha (1967), pp116-117; see also Gopal (1963a); Lanyi & McWilliams (1966); Marx (1853); Roberts (1958); Sinha (1967); Spear (1965)..

22. Kachhawaha (1992); Maloo (1987).

23. Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982); Hunter (1871); Kachhawaha (1992); Maloo (1987).

24. Ghosh (1944).

25. Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982).

26. Bolts (1772), p194; quoted in Gopal (1963a), p7; Mukherjee (1958), p304.

27. Marx (1853); reproduced in Lanyi & McWilliams (1966), pp112-116.

28. Embree (1962); Hunter (1871).

29. Smith (1776).

30. Sinha (1967), pp116-121.

31. Edwards & Williams (1957).

32. Report of Justice H.B.L. Braund on the Bengal Famine (1943), quoted by Voight (1987), pp154, 337.

33. Drèze & Sen (1989); Edwardes (1967); Kachhawahara (1992); Maloo (1987);

34. Drèze & Sen (1989), p212.

35. Freund (1984).

36. Cameron & Spies (1992); Chalk & Jonassohn (1990); Freund (1984); Langer (1952).

37. Cameron & Spies (1992); Walter (1969) pp137-142, reproduced in Chalk & Jonassohn (1990), pp223-229.

38. Cameron & Spies (1992); Langer (1952); Porter (1984).

39. Langer (1952); Pelling (1974); Porter (1984).

40. Cameron & Spies (1992); Langer (1992).

41. Anstey (1962, 1966); Forbath (1978); Martelli (1962); Morel (1907).

42. Martelli (1962).

43. Drechsler, H. (1980), Let Us Die Fighting: The Struggle of the Herero and the Nama against German Imperialism (1884-1915) (transl. B.Zollner) (Zed Books, New York), reproduced in part in Chalk & Jonassohn (1990), pp230-248.

44. Bhana & Pachai (1984); Cameron & Spies (1992); Freund (1984); Mehta (1976).

45. Ross (1993), p719.

46. Chalk & Jonassohn (1990), Indians of the Americas, 1492 to 1789, pp173-194..

47. Langer (1952).

48. Chalk & Jonassohn (1990), Indians of the Americas, 1492 to 1789, pp173-194..

49. Honan (1987).

50. Chalk & Jonassohn (1990), Indians of the Americas, 1492 to 1789, pp173-194..

51. Chalk & Jonassohn (1990), Indians of the United States in the Nineteenth Century, pp195-203; Langer (1952); Washburn (1988), History of Indian-White Relations, Volume 4 in Sturtevant (1988), Handbook of North American Indians.

52. Chalk & Jonassohn (1990), pp195-203; Langer (1952).

53. V.S. Naipaul, (1957), The Mystic Masseur; (1958), The Suffrage of Elvira; (1959), Miguel Street; (1961), House for Mr Biswas; (1962), The Middle Passage; (1963), Mr Stone and the Knights Companion; (1964), An Area of Darkness; (1967), The Mimic Men; (1967), A Flag on the Island; (1969), The Loss of El Dorado; (1971), In a Free State; (1972), The Overcrowded Barracoon; (1975), Guerillas; (1977), A Wounded Civilization; (1991), India. A Million Mutinies Now.

54. Shiva Naipaul (1970), Fireflies; (1970), The Chip-Chip Gatherers; (1983), A Hot Country; (1985), Beyond the Dragon’s Mouth; (1986), An Unfinished Journey.

55. Other examples of excellent “British colonial” literature include: Boldrewood (1889), Robbery Under Arms; Clarke (1885), For the Term of his Natural Life; Conrad (1898), Tales of Unrest; Conrad (I905), Typhoon; Forster (1924), A Passage to India; Forster (1965), The Hill of Devi; Fraser (1979), Flashman’s First Omnibus: Flash; Royal Flash; Flash for Freeedom; Gordimer (1992), Jump and Other Stories; Herbert (1983), Poor Fellow My Country; Herbert (1938), Capricornia; Kipling (1891), Life’s Handicap; (1901), Kim; Kipling (1924), The Jungle Book; Kipling (1926), Just So Stories for Children; Kipling (1960), Soldiers Three; The Story of the Gadsbys; In Black And White; Kipling (1960), Plain Tales From the Hills; Lawrence (1950), Kangaroo; Lessing (1983), Martha Quest; Manning (1983), The Rain Forest; Maugham (1951), The Complete Short Stories; and, of course, Anonymous (1934), Letters From An Indian Judge.

56. Honan (1987).

57. Honan (1987); Lane (1996), pp78-79.

58. Clark (1969, 1971, 1986); McQueen (1971);.Shaw (1960, 1971).

59. Buggy & Cates (1985); Chalk & Jonassohn (1990); Flannery (1994); Lines (1991); Robinson & York (1977); Ross (1993).

60. Gilmore (1934, 1935).

61. Dame Mary Gilmore testament on film, “The 7.30 Report”, Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC) Television, broadcast 16 January 1997.

62. Bradfield (1996).

63. Bradfield (1996); Gilmore (1934); Lines (1991); Shaw (1960).

64. Morgan (1987), My Place.

65. Ross (1993), p667.

66. Ross (1993), p732.

67. Belich (1989).

68. Belich (1989); Flannery (1994); Gravelle (1980).

69. Gravelle (1980).

70. Flannery (1994).

71. Gravelle (1980).

72. Belich (1989); Darlington (); Gravelle (1980).

73. Buggy & Cates (1985); Gravelle (1980); McQueen (1970).

74. Ali (1979); Cannon (1981); Gravelle (1980); for the South African indentured labour system see Bhana & Pachai (1984); Cameron & Spies (1992).

75. Lane (1996), p79.

76. Spear (1971).

77. Flannery (1994).

78. Nelson (1976).

79. Bochuan (1991); Langer (1952).

80. Buggy & Cates (1985); Cannon (1981); McQueen (1971).

81. Cameron & Spies (1992).

82. Churchill speech to the House of Commons, 22 February 1906; quoted in: Palmer (1981), p71; R.S.Churchill (1967), Winston S. Churchill, volume 2, p167.

83. Bachman (1988), Great Leap Forward, in Embree (1988a), pp520-523; Chang (), Wild Swans; Dreze & Sen (1989); Embree (1988a); Greenough (1988), Famine, in Embree (1988a), pp457-459; Newman (1990).

84. Prebble (1963).

85. Cunningham (1996); Edwards & Williams (1957); Litton (1994); Woodham-Smith (1962).

86. Woodham-Smith (1962).

87. Langer (1952); Trevelyan (1952);

88. C.E. Trevelyan letter (1846) quoted in Edwards & Williams (1957), p255.

89. C.E. Trevelyan letter to Lord Moneagle (1846), quoted in Edwards & Williams (1957), p257.

90. Trevelyan (1952).

91. Grieve (1974), Macaulay essay on Lord Robert Clive and the Great Bengal Famine.

92. Trevelyan (1952), pp644-645.

93. Prebble (1963).

94. Stowe (1857); quoted in Prebble (1963).

95. Chalk & Jonassohn (1990); Flannery (1994); Lines (1991); Morris (1972), Final solution Downunder, Horizon vol. 14, pp60-71, reproduced in Chalk & Jonassohn (1972), pp204-222.

96. Dombrovskis, Flanagan & Kirkpatrick (1996).

2008 Postscript

97. Lindqvist (1992).

98. Conrad (1899); Coppola (1979).

99. Blum (2006); Chomsky (2007a, b); Davis (2001); Diamond (1997, 2005); Elkins (2005); Flannery (1994); Gilbert (1969, 1982); Mason (2000); Polya (2007a).

100. Polya (2007a).

101. Polya (2008i, j, k, l, m).

102. Polya (2008a, b, c, m).

Chapter 14. The Bengal Famine of 1943-1944

1. Hansard of the House of Commons, Winston Churchill speech, Hansard Vol. 302, cols. 1920-21, 1935; quoted by Jog (1944), p195.

2. Behrens (1955), p348.

3. Taylor (1965), p563.

4. Diary of Amery (Secretary for India), September 9, 1942; quoted by Ziegler (1988), pp 351-352.

5. Churchill (1954), vol. 4, p181.

6. Greenough (1982).

7. Uppal (1984).

8. Das (1949); Drèze & Sen (1989); Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982, 1988); Uppal (1984); Satyajit Ray film, Distant Thunder; Sen (1989); Villager (ca 1945).

9. World War 2 losses included 303,000 British Armed forces personnel killed, 109,000 Empire losses, 60,000 civilians killed in air raids and 30,000 merchant seamen killed according to Taylor (1965); if we take a figure of 4 million Bengalis having perished in the famine then the famine victims represented about 90% of total British Empire losses.

10. Langer (1952).

11. Drèze & Sen (1989); Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982, 1988); Uppal (1984); Satyajit Ray film, Distant Thunder; Sen (1989).

12. Sen (1981).

13. Report of Justice H.B.L. Braund on the Bengal Famine (1943), quoted by Voight (1987), pp154, 337.

14. Das (1944); Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982).

15. Das (1949); Greenough (1982); Jog (1944); Sen (1945).

16. Greenough (1982); Jog (1944).

17. Bhowani Sen (1945), Rural Bengal in ruins; quoted in Gopal (1963a), pp55-56.

18. Jog (1944), p192.

19. Hicks (1995).

20. Tuchman (1970), p433.

21. Ghosh (1944); Das (1949); Greenough (1982).

22. Satyajit Ray film, Distant Thunder.

23. Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982).

24. Sir T. Rutherford letter to the Viceroy of India, qiuoted by Dreze & Sen (1989), p212.

25. Sen (1981).

26. Behrens (1955); Dreze & Sen (1989); Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982); Uppal (1984); Sen (1981).

27. Ghosh (1944); Hunter (1871); Kachhawaha (1985).

28. Famine Commission (1946); Greenough (1982).

29. Bhattacharya (1967), p550.

30. Casey(1962); Greenough (1982); Hudson (1986); Moon (1973); Uppal (1984).

31. Moon (1973).

32. Manchester Guardian, 1943; Calcutta Statesman supplement, Maladministration in Bengal, October 1943, quoted by Greenough (1982).

33. Barnes & Nicholson (1988); Moon (1973); Kimball (1984), p117; Lewin (1980).

34. Casey (1947, 1962); Hudson (1986); Ziegler (1985).

35. Ghosh (1944).

36. Famine Commission Report, India (1945), Report on Bengal.

37. Moon (1973).

38. Casey (1962).

39. Jog (1944), p193.

40. Kachhawahara (1985), pp37-38.

41. Ross (1992).

42. Ghosh (1944).

43. Jog (1944).

44. Famine Commission Report, India (1945), Report on Bengal.

45. Narayan (1944), quoted in Greenough (1982), p145; Bhohowani Sen , Rural Bengal In Ruins (translated by Chakravarty),1945 (Calcutta); quoted in Greenough (1982); Gopal (1965a);

46. Johnson (1947); Nagar (1990).

47. Bhatia (1991); Das (1949); Dreze & Sen (1989); Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982); Sen (1981); Uppal (1984).

48. Aykroyd (1974); Bhattacharya (1967); Behrens (1955); Brown & Eckholm (1974); Chatterjee (1984); Grun (1975); Encyclopaedia Britannica (the 1961 edition but not the 1977 or 1979 editions); Kimball (1984); Kitchen (1990); Lewin (1980); Maloo (1987); Mehra (1985); Robinson (1984); Romanus & Sunderland (1956); Taylor (1965); Spear (1965, 1968); Stephens (1966); Voight (1987).

49. Bhattacharya (1967); Chatterjee (1984); Mehra (1985); Robinson (1984); Spear (1965); Voight (1987).

50. Dodwell (1963a); Porter (1984); Thomson (1965); Sethi (1963); Vadgama (1984).

51. Gordon (1990); Taylor (1965).

52. Gordon (1990).

53. Churchill (1950); Kinvig (1992); Moore (1979).

54. Carter & Mears (1960); Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1977, 1979); Halliday (1986); Langer (1952); Morgan (1984); Peacock (1980); Porter (1984); Roberts & Roberts (1980); Thomson (1965); Trevelyan (1952); Wells (1951).

55. Trevelyan, G. (1952).

56. Trevelyan, H. (1972).

57. Wells (1936); Wells (1984)

58. Wells (1951).

59. Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1961).

60. Gedye, R. (1994), Holocaust denial banned.

61. Hicks (1995).

62. Brownstone & Franck (1990); Carter & Mears (1960); Cook & Stevenson (1991); Dunan (1968); Embree (1988); Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1961, 1977, 1979); Grun (1975); Howat & Taylor (1973); Langer (1952); Lenman & Boyd (1993); Morgan (1984); Mowat (1968); Natkiel et al. (1982); Palmer (1973); Palmer (1992); Pascoe (1991); Phillips (1964); Rosenberger & Tobin (1945) [Keesing’s Contemporary Archives (1943-1945]; Ross (1990); Shafritz et al. (1993); Spear (1968); Taylor (1965); Teed (1992); Thackrah (1993); Thomson (1965); Trevelyan (1960); Trager (1979); Trevelyan (1960); Wells (1951); Williams (1966).

63. Behrens (1955); Bosworth (1993); Calvocoressi et al. (1972); Campbell (1985); Churchill (1954); Davies (1984); Dear & Foot (1995); Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1961, 1977, 1979); Esposito (1964); Gilbert (1988, 1989); Hoyt (1988); Keegan (1989); Kitchen (1990); Leckie (1987); Lee (1989); Liddell Hart (1970); Lyons (1989); Macmillan (1967); Messenger (1989); Michell (1975); Miller (1945); O’Neill & Krauskopf (1976); Parker (1987); Polowetzky (1989); Renouvin (1969); Romanus & Sunderland (1956); Snyder (1960); , 1975); Taylor (1965); Vyas (1982); Warner (1988); Weinberg (1994); Willmott (1989); Wright (1968); Young (1966).

64. Albjerg (1973); Ben-Moshe (1992); Broad (1951, 1963);; Charmley (1993); Churchill (1954); Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1961, 1977, 1979); Gilbert (1988); Gilbert (1991); S. Gopal in Blake & Louis (1994), Chapter 26; Irving (1987); Jablonsky (1991); Jog (1944); Kimball (1984); Lambakis (1993); Longford (1974); Manchester (1983); Martin (1991); Moore (1979); Pearson (1991); Pelling (1974); Rose (1995); Trukhanovsky (1978).

65. Churchill (1954), The Second World War.

66. Jog (1944), p192.

67. Behrens (1955).

68. Casey (1947, 1962); Hudson (1986); Langmore (1997).

69. Casey (1962), p178.

70. Casey (1962), p179.

71. Casey (1962), p188.

72. Casey (1962), p192.

73. Greenough (1982).

74. Casey (1962), p190.

75. Das (1949); Drèze & Sen (1989); Greenough (1982); Sen (1981); Uppal (1984).

76. Casey (1962), p193.

77. Casey letter to Wavell (March 1, 1945), quoted in Hudson (1986), p169; this letter is reproduced but with this key part omitted in Casey (1962), A Letter to a Viceroy, Chapter 9, pp209-215.

78. Kinvig (1992).

79. Feature film, The Bridge on the River Kwai.

80. Nagar (1990), Hunger: A Novel.

81. Satyajit Ray feature film Distant Thunder.

82. Aarons & Loftus (1997).

83. Villager (ca 1945), Famine or Plenty, p4.

2008 Postscript

84. BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) (2008).

85. BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) (2008); Mason (2000).

86. Bayly & Harper (2004); Brown & Finsterbusch (1972); Bulliet (1998); BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) (2008); Embree (1999); Gilbert (1999); Mason (2000); Polya (1998a, 2003a, 2007a); Ponting (2000); Stanton (1999).

87. Braudel (1993); Duiker & Spielvogel (2006); Garratty & Gay (1972); McNeil (1979); Schama (2002); Stokesbury (1980).

88. Blainey (2005).

89. Blainey (2000, 2004).

Chapter 15. Pride and Prejudice - Churchill, science, the Bengal Famine and the Jewish Holocaust

1. Trukhanovsky (1978), p30.

2. Churchill (1906), House of Commons, 22 February 1906 , quoted in Palmer (1981), p71.

3. Churchill (1915) quoted in Pearson (1991), p138.

4. Churchill (1941) quoted by Rusbridger & Nave (1991), p28.

5. Report of Sir R. Craigie (former British Ambassador to Japan) to Mr. Eden (British Foreign Secretary) in 1943, reproduced in Rusbridger & Nave (1991), Appendix I.

6. Jog (1944); Uppall (1984); Moon (1988).

7. Weissberg (1958); Laqueur (1982); Wasserstein (1988).

8. Albjerg (1973); Ben-Moshe (1992); Blake & Louis (1994); Charmley (1993); Churchill (1938); Churchill (1952); Gilbert (1991); Irving (1987); Jablonsky (1991); Jog (1944); Kimball (1984); Lambakis (1993); Longford (1974); Manchester (1983); Martin (1991); Moore (1979); Pearson (1991); Pelling (1974); Rusbridger & Nave (1991); Snow (1961); Trukhanovsky (1978); Ziegler (1988).

9. Halperin (1984); Hodge (1972); Honan (1987); Tucker (1983), pp57-58..

10. Masson (1985).

11. Morris (1967, 1984).

12. Sartre, J-P. (1946); Baldwin (1963).

13. Pelling (1974).

14. Jog (1944); Pelling (1974).

15. Churchill (1898).

16. Churchill (1899).

17. Cameron & Spies (1986).

18. Tyquin (1993).

19. El-Ghusein (1917); Gurun (1988); Walker (1990).

20. Robinson (1989), pp48-52.

21. Rusbridger & Nave (1991).

22. Craigie (1943) letter to Anthony Eden, reproduced in Rusbridger & Nave (1991), Appendix.

23. Goldstein & Dillon (1982), Revisionists revisited in Prange (1982), Appendix, pp839-852 and Forward, ppix-xiii; Martin (1991); Prange (1992); Rusbridger & Nave (1991);

24. Snow (1961).

25. Behrens (1955); Churchill (1952), volume IV, p823; Taylor (1965).

26. Moon (1973); Polya (1995); Uppall (1984); Ziegler (1988).

27. Moon (1973).

28. Churchill (1944) letter to Roosevelt, reproduced in Kimball (1984), p117.

29. Gopal (1994) in Blake and Louis (1994), chapter 26, pp465-466; Behrens (1955); Uppall (1984); Ziegler (1988)

30. Behrens (1955); Das (1949); Greenough (1982); Kimball (1984).

31. Willmott (1989), p326.

32. Kitchen (1990), pp160-161.

33. Tuchman (1970), p38.

34. Ziegler (1985), p247.

35. Tuchman (1970), p383.

36. Tuchman (1970), p433.

37. Churchill (1952), volume V, p600.

38. Chalk & Jonassohn (1990); Anatoli (Kuznetsov) (1966).

39. Gilbert (1991), p516.

40. H.G. Wells (1936) Postscript to an Experiment in Autobiography in G.P. Wells (1984), pp133-134.

41. Awake, August 22, 1995.

42. Kiernan (1976).

43. Laqueur (1980), appendix 4, pp223-228; Wasserstein (1983), pp172-182.

44. Langer (1953), p1100-1102.

45. Mosley (1955); Slim (1956); Sykes (1959); Mead (1987).

46. Aarons & Loftus (1997); Kedourie (1968), esp. p295; Moon (1973); Wasserstein (1983).

47. Gordon (1963), especially pp196-203.

48. Wasserstein (1983), p40.

49. Wasserstein (1983).

50. Aarons & Loftus (1997); Bermant (1979); Blumberg (1975); Clarke (1960); Gilbert (1969); Gilbert (1982); Lacqueur (1980); Parkes (1964); Russell, Lord (1956); Van den Haag (1969); Wasserstein (1983); Weissberg (1958).

51. Dayan (1967).

52. Moon (1973); Albjerg (1973), p211.

53. Weissberg (1958); Lacqueur (1980); Wasserstein (1983).

54. Woodbridge (1950); Uppall (1984).

55. Report by E.R.Walker to H.V. Evatt (January 7, 1946) in Hudson et al. (1991), pp22-27.

56. Letter from C.Attlee to B. Chifley (February 4, 1946) in Hudson et al. (1991), pp105-107.

57. Jog (1944); Mehta (1976); Ziegler (1988).

58. Allen & Mason (1975), pp209-211; Lewin (1980); Mehta (1976).

59. Austen (1817) Northanger Abbey, Chapter 24, pp201-202.

60. Letter of Lord Linlithgow, Viceroy of India, to Winston Churchill (August 20, 1942), quoted in Churchill (1952), volume IV, p456.

61. Churchill (1952), volume IV, p181.

62. S. Gopal (1994) in Blake and Louis (1994) (editors), Chapter 24, p464..

63. Jog (1944); Gilbert (1988).

64. Gilbert (1969), p91.

65. Albjerg (1973); Ben-Moshe (1992); Broad (1951, 1963); Charmley (1993); Churchill (1954); Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1961, 1977, 1979); Gilbert (1988); Gilbert (1991); S. Gopal in Blake & Louis (1994), Chapter 26; Irving (1987); Jablonsky (1991); Jog (1944); Kimball (1984); Lambakis (1993); Longford (1974); Manchester (1983); Martin (1991); Moore (1979); Pearson (1991); Pelling (1974); Rose (1995); Trukhanovsky (1978).

66. Bloch (1982); Bill Blauber , Baltimore Sun, Papers show Duke of Windsor’s Nazi leanings, report in The Age 5 December 1996, p10.

67. Behrens (1955); Bosworth (1993); Calvocoressi et al. (1972); Campbell (1985); Churchill (1954); Davies (1984); Dear & Foot (1995); Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1961, 1977, 1979); Esposito (1964); Gilbert (1988, 1989); Hoyt (1988); Keegan (1989); Kitchen (1990); Leckie (1987); Lee (1989); Liddell Hart (1970); Lyons (1989); Macmillan (1967); Messenger (1989); Michell (1975); Miller (1945); O’Neill & Krauskopf (1976); Parker (1987); Polowetzky (1989); Renouvin (1969); Romanus & Sunderland (1956); Snyder (1960); , 1975); Taylor (1965); Vyas (1982); Warner (1988); Weinberg (1994); Willmott (1989); Wright (1968); Young (1966).

68. Bullock (1967); Brownstone & Franck (1990); Carter & Mears (1960); Cook & Stevenson (1991); Dunan (1968); Embree (1988); Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1961, 1977, 1979); Grun (1975); Howat & Taylor (1973); Langer (1952); Lenman & Boyd (1993); Morgan (1984); Natkiel et al. (1982); Palmer (1973); Palmer (1992); Pascoe (1991); Phillips (1964); Rosenberger & Tobin (1945) [Keesing’s Contemporary Archives (1943-1945]; Ross (1990); Spear (1968); Shafritz et al. (1993); Taylor (1965); Teed (1992); Thackrah (1993); Thomson (1965); Trevelyan (1952); Trager (1979); Trevelyan (1960); Wells (1951); Williams (1966).

69. Gedye (1994), Holocaust denial banned.

70. Dreze & Sen (1989); Greeenough (1982).

71. Edwardes (1967), p231.

72. Bayly (1988); Bose (1993); Marshall (1987); Dodwell (1963a,b); Sethi (1963).

73. Kedourie (1968); Lewis (1964); Mowat (1968); Phillips (1964); Spear (1968); Thomson (1964).

74. Malthus (1798), An Essay on the Principle of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society.

2008 Postscript

75. Bayly & Harper (2004); Brown & Finsterbusch (1972); Bulliet (1998); BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) (2008); Embree (1999); Gilbert (1999); Mason (2000); Polya (1998a, 2003a, 2007a); Ponting (2000); Stanton (1999).

76. Blainey (2000, 2004, 2005); Braudel (1993); Duiker & Spielvogel (2006); Garratty & Gay (1972); McEvedy (1984); McNeil (1979); Schama (2002); Stokesbury (1980).

Chapter 16. Global warming and the unthinkable world of 2050

1. Svante Arrhenius (circa 1900) quoted by Bernard (1993), p5.

2. Bach (1984); Bernard (1993); Falk & Brownlow (1989); Goldsmith et al. (1990); Lovelock (1979, 1988, 1991); MacKenzie (1995b); McKibben (1990); Pickering & Owen (1994); Prather et al. (1996); Washington (1991).

3. McKibben (1990).

4. Lehninger (1975), Chapter 22; Rawn (1989), Chapter 18; Darnell et al. (1990), Chapter 16; Alberts et al. (1994), Chapter 14; Garrett & Grisham (1995), Chapter 22; Lodish et al. (1995), Chapter 18; .Stryer (1995), Chapter 26; Mathews & Van Holde (1996), Chapter 17.

5. Reilly (1994); Rosenzweig & Parry (1994).

6. Weier et al. (1974).

7. Kerr (1994); Simkin (1994); Andreae (1996); Li et al. (1996).

8. Brownlee, D.E. (1995); Farley & Patterson (1995).

9. Cess & Zhang (1996).

10. Lovelock (1979, 1988, 1991); Kump (1996).

11. Lovelock (1988); Newsom (1996).

12. Lovelock (1991); Mc Kibben (1990).

13. Bernard (1993); Birch (1980); Bochuan (1991); Ehrlich (1968); Ehrlich et al. (1973); Falk & Brownlow (1989); Goldsmith et al. (1990); Gordon & Suzuki (1990); Lovelock (1979, 1988, 1991); McKibben (1990); Mestel (1995); Porritt (1991); Saunders et al. (1993); Schneider (1989); Silver & De Fries (1990); Suzuki (1990); Washington (1991).

14. Bernard (1993).

15. Kerr (1996a,b); Masood (1996); Rosenzweig & Parry (1996); Thomson (1995); Walker (1995).

16. Kerr (1996a,b).

17. Masood (1996).

18. Wigley et al. (1996).

19. IPCC Report (1995).

20. The Age June 6 1995.

21. MacKenzie (1995a); Vaughan & Doake (1996).

22. Schindler et al. ((1996); Gorham (1996).

23. Bernard (1993).

24. Kerr (1996b).

25. Victor & Salt (1995); Anderson (1995); Pearce (1995b).

26. Masood (1995).

27. Victor & Salt (1995).

28. Manabe & Stouffer (1995).

29. Bernard (1993).

30. Leggett (1990); Edgerton (1991); Eastwood (1991); Bernard (1993).

31. Wigley et al. (1996).

32. Bernard (1993); Eastwood (1991); Edgerton (1991); Leggett (1990).

33. Pearce (1995a); Pearce (1995c).

34. Rosenzweig & Parry (1996).

35. Sprigg (1966).

36. Malthus (1798).

37. Birch (1980); Bochuan (1991); Ehrlich (1968); Ehrlich et al. (1973); Falk & Brownlow (1989); Falloux & Talbot (1993); Goldsmith et al. (1990); Gordon & Suzuki (1990); Lovelock (1979, 1988, 1991); McKibben (1990); Porritt (1991); Saunders et al. (1993); Suzuki (1990); Washington (1991).

38. Letter of C.E. Trevelyan to Lord Monteagle (1846), quoted in Edwards & William (1957), p257.

39. Chalk & Jonassohn (1990); Hunter (1871); Jog (1944); Uppal (1984).

40. Bissio (1990).

41. Bochuan (1991); Falloux & Talbot (1993); Porrit (1991); Washington (1991).

42. Porrit (1991).

43. Falloux & Talbot (1993).

44. Birch (1980); Bochuan (1991); Ehrlich (1968); Ehrlich et al. (1973); Falk & Brownlow (1989); Falloux & Talbot (1993); Goldsmith et al. (1990); Gordon & Suzuki (1990); Lovelock (1979, 1988, 1991); McKibben (1990); Porritt (1991); Saunders et al. (1993); Suzuki (1990); Washington (1991).

45. Bochuan (1991).

46. Bissio (1990); Chaliand & Rageau (1985); Kidron & Segal (1987).

47. Bissio (1990).

48. Gordon & Suzuki (1990), p238.

49. Bissio (1990); Falloux & Talbot (1993).

50. Bernard (1993); Kennedy (1993).

51. Elton (1990), Gasping, a play.

52. Mestel (1995); Rosenzweig & Parry (1994).

53. Bissio (1990); Bochuan (1991); Falloux & Talbot (1993).

2008 Postscript

54. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007); Polya (2007d); Science Daily (2007).

55. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007); Lovelock (2006, 2007); Polya (2007d, 2008e, d); Spratt & Sutton (2008); Whitesides (2007).

56. Hoegh-Guldberg et al (2007); Science Show (2007); Veron (2008).

57. Lovelock (2006, 2007).

58. Hansen et al. (2007a, b); Hansen (2008); NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) (2007); Polya (2008h); Spratt & Sutton (2008).

59. Science Daily (2002); Whitty (2007).

60. Brahic (2006).

61. McKibben (2007); Whitesides (2007).

62. Brown (2008); Polya (2008a, b, c, d, m. n).

63. Fargione et al. (2008); Searchinger et al. (2008).

64. Smith & Elliott (2008).

65. Gainor (2007).

66. Polya (2007e).

Chapter 17. Antipodean epilogue - the moral dimension of the Lucky Country and the w orld

1. Austen (1811), Sense and Sensibility, chapter 13, p66.

2. Austen (1811), Sense and Sensibility, chapter 36, p246.

3. Gilmore (1934), chapter 24, The ungathered script, p175.

4. Dr. Albert Schweitzer, quoted by Rachel Carson (1962) in dedicating Silent Spring to him.

5. Horne, D. (1968), The Lucky Country.

6. Flannery (1994); Lines ( 1991); Parv (1984); Rolls (1994); Ross (1993).

7. Hardjono (1994); Ross (1993).

8. Gilmore (1934), Chapter 22, They had their culture, pp160-166.

9. Flannery (1994); Lines (1991); Ross (1993).

10. Flannery (1994); Gilmore (1934); Gilmore (1935); Ross (1993).

11. Gilmore (1934); Gilmore (1935); White (1992).

12. Gilmore (1934); Gilmore (1935).

13. Bates (1985); Brain (1979); Caruna (1993); Collings & Durrant (1977), p39; Davidson (1984); Edwards (1975); Hardy (1968); Lockwood (1962); Massolo (1971); Norton (1975); Ryan & Akerman (circa 1980); Ross (1993); Stubbs (1974); Wertheim (1995); White (1992).

14. Gilmore (1934); Gilmore (1935); Polya (1941), Chapter 13, The saviour of mothers, pp96-102.

15. Chalk & Jonassohn (1990); Gilmore (1934); Gilmore (1935); Lines (1991).

16. Gilmore (1935).

17. Gilmore (1935), p218.

18. Gilmore (1935), pp101-104.

19. Bradfield (1996); Chalk & Jonassohn (1990); Flannery (1994); Gilmore (1934); Gilmore (1935); Hassell (1966); Lines (1991); Morris (1972); Pollard (1988).

20. Bradfield (1996); Ryan & Akerman (1980).

21. Gilmore (1934, 1935); Lines (1991).

22. Blainey (1987); Lines (1991); Reynolds (1990); Robinson & York (1977).

23. Garden (1984); Garran (1986); Lines (1991); Murray-Smith (1984); Pratt (1934); Turner (1973).

24. Duffy (1988); Ergang (1941); Hindley (1987), p230; Hubatsch (1975); Jenks (1960); Longford (1974), p202: “Asked why he preferred to paint landscapres, Churchill replied: “Because a tree doesn’t complain that I haven’t done it justice.” ; Mitford (1970); Payne (1973).

25. Lines (1991); Shaw (1960).

26. Bradfield (1996).

27. Gilmore (1934), p104.

28. Lines (1991); Shaw (1960).

29. Bradfield (1996); Lines (1991).

30. Blainey (1982); Clarke (1885), For the Term of His Natural Life; Hughes (1987); Shaw (1971).

31. Dunn (1984).

32. Buggy & Cates (1985); Lines (1991); McQueen (1971).

33. Lines (1991).

34. Cannon (1981); Buggy & Cates (1985); Gravelle (1980); McQueen (1971).

35. Buggy & Cates (1985); Lines (1991); McQueen (1971).

36. Ali (1979); Cannon (1981); Gravelle (1980); Norton (1914), reproduced in Cannon (1981), pp99-101.

37. Buggy & Cates (1985); McQueen (1971).

38. Reverend Samuel Marsden (1819) quoted in Lines (1991), p43.

39. Charles La Trobe (1840s) quoted in Lines (1991), p108.

40. Reverend James Walker, Church of England Minister, North Parramatta (1846), quoted in Buggy & Cates (1985), p8.

41. Trollope (1873), p76.

42. Finch-Hatton (1975) quoted in Lines ( 1991), p109.

43. Perry (circa 1975) quoted in Murray-Smith (1984), p237.

44. Stewart & Keesing (1962), collected poems about “blacks” , Australian Bush Ballads pp99-122.

45. Deniehy (1858), parliamentary speech quoted in Murray-Smith (1984), p64.

46. A.B.“Banjo” Paterson, A Bushman’s Song quoted in Murray-Smith (1984), p214.; Stewart & Keesing (1962), pp391-392. [A. B. “Banjo” Paterson, author of Australia’s national song Waltzing Matilda and The Man From Snowy River, is pictured on the current Australian $10 note. We of course learned all three poems at school in Australia in the 1950s.]

47. Henry Lawson, poem quoted by: Hardy (1968), pp246-247; McQueen (1971), p51. [Henry Lawson was up to several years ago pictured on the Australian $10 note]; see also Wilde & Inglis (1980) pp xxi-xxvii, for the Lawson, Lane and Gilmore friendships.

48. Barton (1901) speech to Federal Parliament concerning the Commonwealth Immigration Restriction Act 1901, quoted in Buggy and Cates (1985), p145.

49. Lawson (1913), poem The Old, Old Story quoted in Mc Queen (1971), p 113.

50. William Lane (1892) in the Wagga Hummer, April 1892; quoted in McQueen (1971), p48.

51. McQueen (1971); Murray-Smith (1984). p9.

52. The Bulletin (1901) attacking Joseph Chamberlain, British Secretary of State for the Colonies, quoted in Murray-Smith (1984), p31.

53. O’Malley (1901), Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 6 September 1901, vol.4, p4639; quoted in Murray-Smith (1984), pp206-207..

54. Bernard O’Dowd (circa 1900), poem Our Land, quoted in McQueen (1971), p102.

55. Henry Lawson (circa 1910), poem To Be Amused, quoted in McQueen (1971), p112.

56. Henry Lawson (1908), poem The Great Fight, quoted in McQueen (1971), pp111-112.

57. Adams (circa 1906), poem The Jew, quoted in McQueen (1971), p103.

58. Coleman & Tanner (1978); King (1983); Pearl (1983).

59. Polya & Solomon (1996), p181.

60. Clark (1969, 1971, 1986); Crawford (1963); Dunn (1984); Hardjono (1994); McQueen (1971); Mulvaney & White (1987); Ross (1993); Shaw (1960); White (1992);

61. McQueen (1971), chapter 9, Pianists, pp117-119.

62. Buggy & Cates (1982); Coleman & Tanner (1978); McQueen (1971); Ross (1993).

63. “Breaker Morant”, a feature film starring Edward Woodward as “Breaker” Morant; Blackburn (1994).

64. Cannon (1981); McQueen (1971); Ross (1993).

65. Adam-Smith (1978); Facey (1981); Ross (1993); Tyquin (1993).

66. El Ghusein (1917); Gurun (1985); McClelland (1991), p6; Walker (1990).

67. Adam-Smith (1978); Ross (1993).

68. Ross (1993).

69. Polya (1986).

70. Caroe (1978); Jenkin (1986);

71. Von Itzstein et al. (1993); Von Itzstein & Smalec (1994).

72. Brady (1934); Kiernan (1984); Murphy (1972); Santamaria (1984).

73. Hardy (1962), Power Without Glory. [Frank Hardy, great writer, raconteur, humanist and champion of aboriginal rights, was unsuccessfully charged with criminal defamation over the love affair of the anti-hero’s wife Mrs West with a tradesman, Mrs West having being identified as the wife of the actual Catholic businessman and powerbroker John Wren.]

74. Ross (1993).

75. Lawrence (1950), Kangaroo; Carey (1985), Illywhacker.

76. Ross (1993).

77. Gilmore (1918), The Passionate Heart.

78. Wilde & Moore (1980), pxxv.

79. Gilmore (1936), letter to Hugh McCrae in Wilde & Moore (1980), pp119-121. The “cat” is the “cat o’ nine tails” used for flogging convicts.

80. Hardy (1962); Whitington (1971), p125; Young (1971).

81. Kisch (1969); Smith (1936).

82. Menzies’ speech to Old Scotch Collegians, 16 October 1938 shortly after his return from Nazi Germany, Lockwood (1987), p151; Menzies (1967), especially 23 August 1939 appeasement speech, p14; Perkins (1968), notably another appeasement speech of mid-September 1938 and commentary, pp61-62.

83. Rusbridger & Nave (1991).

84. Moore (1981); Ross (1993); Shaw (1960).

85. Calwell speech to Parliament (1948), Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, 2 December 1947, vol. 194, p2948; quoted in Murray-Smith (1984), p36; quoted and discussed in Kiernan (1978), chapter 5, pp114-135.

86. Calwell speech to Parliament (1949), Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, 9 February 1949, vol. 201, p64; quoted by Murray-Smith (1984), p36; quoted and discussed in Kiernan (1978), chapter 6, pp136-153.

87. Calwell (circa 1950) quoted by Kiernan (1978), p134.

88. Morgan (1987), My Place, a superb account of the impact of aboriginal children being removed from their mothers.

89. Grassby (1979); E.G. Whitlam, Forward to Grassby (1979), pxv.

90. Calwell assertion (1972), Observer 7 May 1972; quoted in Murray-Smith (1984), p36; quoted and discussed in Kiernan (1978), p133.

91. Williamson (1975), The Department, p13.

92. Morosi, J. (1975); D’Alpuget (1985), p276.

93. Kiernan (1978).

94. Shaw (1960); Ross (1993).

95. D’Alpuget (1982); Frost (1974); McClelland (1991); Morosi (1975); Whitlam (1979).

96. D’Alpuget (1985);

97. Ross (1993); Singleton (1977).

98. Bookman Press (1992).

99. Tingle (1996), a critique of Pauline Hanson’s maiden speech.

100. Blainey (1982, 1994).

101. Aarons & Loftus (1997); Lacqueur (1978); Wasserstein (1988); Weissberg (1958).

102. Crossman, R.H.S. (1946), p21, quoted in Wasserstein (1988), p356-357.

103. Baldwin (1964), pp50 -51.

104. Greenough (1982); Moon (1973); Uppall (1984).

105. Chang (1991); Chalk & Jonassohn (1990).

106. Tingle (1996); Australian Government Report concerning the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CROC) (1995); Australian Health Ministers’ Conference : the Health of Young Australians (1995).

107. Australian Government CROC Report (1995).

108. Australian Government CROC Report (1995).

109. Tingle (1996); McClelland (1991), pp4-6.

110. Tingle (1996).

111. Tingle (1996).

112. Ross (1993); reported in the Weekend Australian 8-9 February 1997: “The Deputy Prime Minister and leader of the National Party, Mr. Fischer, yesterday called for legislation to overturn the High Court’s Wik decision by extinguishing native title on pastoral leases.”

113. Netting (1993); Pollard (1988); Waring (1988).

114. Dovers (1994); Flannery & Kendall (1990); Flannery (1994); Morton (1994), Chapter 8 in Dovers (1994), pp141-166; Washington (1991).

115. Gilpin (1980); Flannery & Kendall (1990); Flannery (1994); Anderson Ehrlich.

116. Collings & Durrant (1977), pp116-133; Tassell & Wood (1981), esp. pp98-131;

117. Anderson, I. (1995a), Bad science breeds contempt [concerning the calicivirus release.]; Da Silva (1996).

118. Reported in the Weekend Australian 23-24 December 1996: Clinton fires salvo at PM on Greenhouse: “The United States President , Mr Clinton, yesterday rebuffed the Howard government’s refusal to accept legally binding limits to greenhouse gas emissions.”; ibid 8-9 January 1997: “It is understood that the [Australian] Federal Government is prepared to step outside the Climate Change Convention process, risking possible trade sanctions, if a differentiated appoach is not adopted at the Kyoto [climate change] meeting in December.”

119. Polya (1995a), The Forgotten Holocaust - The 1943 Bengal Famine.

120. Chamarette (1995), Australian Senate Speech on the Bengal Famine, Hansard, No.14, September 1995, p1158.

121. Polya (1995b), The Famine of History: Bengal 1943.

122. Geyde (1994), Holocaust denial banned.

123. Demidenko (1995) The Hand That Signed the Paper; Demidenko (1995), Stories and stereotypes: critics miss the mark, The Age, 27 June 1995; I am truly sorry. Demidenko comes clean, Weekend Australian, 26-27 August 1995.

124. Michael Leunig cartoon, The Age, 28 September 1995.

125. Editorial, The Age, 9 November 1996; movie summary, The Age entertainment “Green Guide”, 17-23 January 1997, p37..

126. John Howard speech, reported in The Age, 12 December 1996. For an argument sympathetic to John Howard’s “no guilt” position see J.King (first settler descendant), The other side of history, The Age 14 November 1996.

127. Williamson (1975), The Department (a play).

128. Amis (1953); Bradbury (1979); Cornford (1908); Lodge (1980, 1981, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1992 ); Jacobson (1984); Sharpe (1974).

129. Bok (1978).

130. Lurie (1985), Foreign Affairs.

131. Martin et al. (1986); Pullan (1984).

132. Pullan (1984), chapter 2, Concealing the truth, pp36-51.

133. Flannery & Kendall (1990); Flannery (1994).

134. Bernard (1993); Kennedy (1993).

135. Barrio (1990); Chaliand & Rageau (1985); Kidron & Segal (1987); McKibben (1990).

136. Birch (1980); Bochuan (1991); Ehrlich (1968); Ehrlich et al. (1973); Falk & Brownlow (1989); Falloux & Talbot (1993); Goldsmith et al. (1990); Gordon & Suzuki (1990); Lovelock (1979, 1988, 1991); McKibben (1990); Porritt (1991); Saunders et al. (1993); Suzuki (1990); Washington (1991).

137. Bochuan (1991).

138. Hawken (1993).

139. Agarwal & Narain (1993) in Sachs (1993); Netting (1993).

140. Waring (1988).

141. Frank (1944), The Diary of Ann Frank; Leonardo (1950); Polya (1986); Taylor & Taylor (1993); Wasserstein (1988).

142. Bernard (1993); Birch (1980); Bochuan (1991); Ehrlich (1968); Ehrlich et al. (1973); Falk & Brownlow (1989); Falloux & Talbot (1993); Goldsmith et al. (1990); Gordon & Suzuki (1990); Harun ur Rashid (1993); Kennedy (1993); Lovelock (1979, 1988, 1991); McKibben (1990); Polunin & Burnett (1993); Porritt (1991); Redclift (1987); Sachs (1993); Saunders et al. (1993); Schneider (1989); Shiva (1993); Silver & De Fries (1990); Suzuki (1990); Washington (1991).

143. Clark & Munn (1986).

144. Lovelock (1979, 1988, 1991); Washington (1991).

145. Redclift (1987); Sachs (1993); Shiva (1993), Chapter 10 in Sachs (1993).

146. Bennett & George (1987); Bissio (1990); Bochuan (1991); Chaliand & Rageau (1985); Falloux & Talbot (1993); Kennedy (1993), esp. p111; Kidron & Segal (1987); Porritt (1991).

147. Bissio (1990).

148. Bissio (1990); Coghlan (1996); Seager (1993).

149. Greer (1984); Seager (1993).

150. Majumdar (1976), pp74-75.

151. Bates (1985).

152. Vines (1994).

153. Coghlan (1996).

154. Dr. Nafis Sadik, UNFPA, cited by Falloux & Talbot (1993), p175.

155. Norton article (1914), Sugar Swindle. What the C.S.R. Co. is after in Cannon (1981), pp99-101.

156. Bhana & Pachai (1984).

157. Ali (1979); Gravelle (1980).

158. Honan (1987).

159. Bennett & George (1987); Bissio (1990); Bochuan (1991); Chaliand & Rageau (1985); Falloux & Talbot (1993); Kennedy (1993), esp. p111; Kidron & Segal (1987); Porritt (1991).

160. Bochuan (1991).

161. Ehrlich (1968), p198.

162. Suzuki (1990), p229.

163. Bissio (1990); Harun ur Rashid (1993).

164. Rabindranath Tagore quoted in Miller (1992), Moloch or, this Gentile World, p257.

2008 Postscript - Epilogue

165. Brown (2008); Polya (2008a, b, c, d, m. n).

166. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007); Lovelock (2006, 2007); Polya (2007d, 2008e, d); Spratt & Sutton (2008); Whitesides (2007).

167. Polya (2005d).

168. Brown (2008); Polya (2007a, 2008a, b, c, d, m. n).

169. Brahic (2006).

170. Polya (2007e).

171. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007); Lovelock (2006, 2007); Polya (2007d, 2008e, d); Spratt & Sutton (2008); Whitesides (2007).

172. Hansen et al. (2007a, b); Hansen (2008); NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) (2007); Polya (2008h); Spratt & Sutton (2008).

173. Gainor (2007).

174. Polya (2007f).

175 Polya (2008d, f, g, i, j).

176. Brown (2008); Polya (2008a, b, c, d, m. n).

177. Polya (2008m, n).

178. Polya (2008m),

179. Polya (2008o).

180. Reason, J. (2000).

181. Polya (2007a).

182. Climate Emergency Network (2008); Polya (1998a, 2007a); Sachs (2005); Spratt & Sutton (2008a, b); Yarra Valley Climate Action Group (2008).

183. Polya (2007g).

184. See the Climate Emergency Fact Sheets of the Yarra Valley Climate Action Group (2008); Climate Emergency Network (2008); Spratt & Sutton (2008a, b).

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